Amgueddfa Blog

Ddoe, daeth casgliad arbennig i Gymru: esiampl brin iawn o wrthrychau sy'n adrodd hanes Swffragét Gymreig, Kate Williams Evans.

ffotograff du a gwyn yn gwisgo siaced, yn sefyll ar bwys ci
Kate Williams Evans, Swffragét
[Llun: Catherine Southon Auctioneers]

 

Kate Williams Evans - o ganolbarth Cymru i Garchar Holloway

Ganed hi yn Llansanffraid ym 1866, a datblygodd ei diddordeb mewn gwleidyddiaeth wedi iddi deithio i Baris. Pan ddychwelodd i Gymru, ymunodd â’r Women’s Social and Political Union – ac yn erbyn ewyllys ei rhieni, daeth yn Swffragét.

Ar y 4ydd o Fawrth, 1912, arestiwyd hi ar gyhuddiad o ‘Malicious Damage’, a charcharwyd hi am 54 diwrnod yng Ngharchar Holloway. Yn y casgliad, mae llythyron sy’n manylu ar yr amgylchiadau yn Holloway, gan gynnwys disgrifiadau di-flewyn-ar-dafod o’r bwydo gorfodol a dioddefodd yno.

Ymprydio a Bwydo Gorfodol

ffotograff o fedal ar ruban piws, gwyn a gwyrdd, gyda'r geiriau 'Hunger Strike' ar y blaen, a 'Kate Evans' ar y cefn
Medal Ympryd Kate Evans
[Llun: Catherine Southon Auctioneers]

Roedd bwydo gorfodol yn dacteg gyffredin, a ddefnyddwyd gan awdurdodau carchar ar fenywod oedd yn ymprydio. Daeth y mater yn bwnc llosg, a defnyddwyd disgrifiadau o fwydo gorfodol i greu propaganda llwyddiannus oedd o blaid achos y Mudiad Swffragét. Canolbwynt y casgliad a brynwyd gan Amgueddfa Cymru yr wythnos hon yw Medal Ympryd, a roddwyd i Kate i gydnabod yr hyn a ddioddefodd yn y carchar.

Hyd y gwyddom, dim on 100 o Fedalau Ympryd gafodd eu creu – ac mae’n debygol mai hon yw’r unig un a roddwyd i Swffragét o Gymru. Mae’r fedal yn ganolbwynt i’r casgliad, sy’n cynnwys llythyrau a ffotograffau. Am fod dogfennau sy’n olrhain hanes Swffragétiaid o Gymru mor brin, mae’r casgliad hwn o bwysigrwydd cenedlaethol – a bydd nawr yn rhan o gasgliadau Sain Ffagan: Amgueddfa Werin Cymru.

Y Can Mlwyddiant a Thu Hwnt - Adrodd Stori Cymru

Mae’n naw deg mlynedd ers i fenywod gymryd yr hawl i bleidleisio, ac mae can mlynedd ers Deddf Gynrychioli’r Bobl – y ddeddf a alluogodd rai menywod i bleidleisio. Mae'r achlysur wedi rhoi cyfle i ni daro golwg dros ein casgliadau am y pwnc.

ffotograff o faner gyda draig goch a'r geiriau 'cardiff and district' a 'tros rhyddid'
Baner y Cardiff Cardiff & District Women's Suffrage Society. Gwnaethpwyd gan Rose Mabel Lewis, Llywydd y Gymdeithas

Mae nifer o’n casgliadau yn olrhain hanes ymgyrchwyr hawliau pleidleisio, gan gynnwys eu baneri nodweddiadol. Fodd bynnag, mae tystiolaeth sydd wedi goroesi o’r mudiadau Swffragét yn brin iawn, felly roedd y cyfle hwn i brynu’r casgliad yn un arbennig a chyffrous. Bydd y casgliad hwn yn rhoi cyfle i ni ddweud stori fwy cyflawn – un bersonol  a chenedlaethol.

Creu Hanes yn Sain Ffagan

Mae casgliad Kate Evans yn gaffaeliad pwysig ac amserol, gan fod orielau newydd Sain Ffagan: Amgueddfa Werin Cymru ar fin ail-agor, ynghyd â chyfleusterau astudio casgliadau newydd yng Nghanolfan Ddysgu Weston.

ffotograff o staff HLF ac Amgueddfa Cymru yn edrych ar wrthrych mewn oriel newydd
Bydd orielau newydd Sain Ffagan yn agor ym mis Hydref

Mae orielau newydd Sain Ffagan yn agor ym mis Hydref, fel rhan o brosiect ail-ddatblygu uchelgeisiol, sydd wedi’i ariannu trwy gefnogaeth chwaraewyr y Loteri Genedlaethol, ynghyd â Llywodaeth Cymru a rhoddwyr unigol.

 

Mae plastig yn para am genedlaethau. Mae Fforwm Ieuenctid Amgueddfa Genedlaethol Caerdydd, a grwpiau ieuenctid o amgylch Cymru, wedi bod yn codi ymwybyddiaeth o'i effaith ar natur - trwy ychwanegu llwyth o wastraff plastic at orielau môr Amgueddfa Genedlaethol Caerdydd. 

 

"Dyn ni moyn defnyddio'r amgueddfa i ddanfon neges: Mae angen i bawb wneud mwy i ymladd yn erbyn llygredd." - meddai llefarydd ar ran No Môr Plastic


Casglwyd y mynydd o blastig môr dros yr haf, o draethau rhwng Aberogwr a Phorthcawl - traethau poblogiadd yn ne-ddwyrain Cymru.

pentwr o wastraff plastig ar darpaulin
Rhagor o blastig yn cyrraedd yr amgueddfa

 

Mae Surfers Agains Sewage, sydd wedi bod yn ymgyrchu dros foroedd glanach, ac i amddiffyn bywyd gwyllt ers 1990, a maen nhw'n cynnal digwyddiadau twtio traeth yn rheolaidd. Yn ôl Alun Moseley, ymgyrchydd a syrffiwr:

"Dw i di bod yn syrffio ers blynyddoedd, a dwi di gweld cynnydd yn y llygredd môr yn ddiweddar. Mae'r math o lygredd wedi newid hefyd - mae lot mwy o syrffwyr yn mynd yn sâl.

Ond ma na gynnydd 'di bod mewn diddordeb hefyd - pobl isio gwbod be allan nhw wneud, yn enwedig pobl ifanc. Dyna pam mae'r digwyddiad yma yn gam cadarn ymlaen: pobl ifanc fydd yn etifeddu'r sefyllfa - a dyw e ddim yn deg."

Bydd 'No Môr Plastic' i'w weld yn Amgueddfa Genedlaethol Caerdydd o 31 Gorffennaf tan Awst 5.

 

 

Mae 'No Môr Plastig' yn rhan o brosiect Cicio'r Llwch, sy'n annog pobl dan 25 i feddiannu a defnyddio amgueddfeydd. Os ydych chi eisiau cymryd rhan, cysylltwch.

What's the Project all about?

“Saving Treasures; Telling Stories” is an all-Wales Project about bringing archaeology to life and enabling community engagement.

It is funded by the Heritage Lottery Fund and administered by Amgueddfa Cymru - National Museum Wales in partnership with the Federation of Museums and Galleries in Wales and the Portable Antiquities Scheme in Wales.

At Powysland Museum the project takes as its starting point the existing collections of archaeological jewellery in the three local authority museums in Powys: Powysland Museum in Welshpool, Radnorshire Museum in Llandrindod Wells and Brecknock Museum and Art Gallery in Brecon.

Some of the objects have been acquired by the museums as recent treasure finds, while others have been in the collections for several years.

What is Powysland Museum doing?

The project encompasses:

  • a temporary exhibition on archaeological jewellery from the museums in Powys.
  • engagement with a number of community groups in story-writing sessions, art and jewellery workshops and research inspired by the artefacts and their stories, to be displayed in the exhibition.
  • art and craft activities, “finds open days” and other events for a wider audience during the exhibition period.

Community Partners

The museum has been working with a number of partners to deliver the promised outcomes, such as Clwyd-Powys Archaeological Trust, the poet and writer Pat Edwards and the artist Andrew Logan.


The community partners have included Welshpool High School’s Art department, Buttington-Trewern Primary School, Welshpool Camera Club, Llanfair-Caereinion Historical Society, Welshpool Young Carers and Welshpool Kaleidoscope group.

Working with Welshpool Poetry Festival


One of the bonuses of having Pat Edwards involved in the project was that she transferred the idea of archaeological jewellery to the annual Welshpool Poetry Festival, of which she is the founder and the organiser.
 
Every year the poetry festival holds a competition and this year’s theme was ‘jewels’. For the ‘Young People’s Poetry Competition (Ages 7-14) the winners were:

  • First Prize – ‘My Jewel’ by Nancy Gargiulo from Criftins Primary School
  • Second Prize – ‘Jewel’ by Lila Melnykevicova
  • Third Prize – ‘Silver’ by Maisie from Berriew School

Powysland museum is delighted to be able to display these poems and others along with their Saving Treasures-funded Archaeological Jewellery exhibition.

 

The Museums Association Conference of 1948 was held at National Museum Cardiff over five days, running from July 12th to the 16th. All conference meetings were held in the Reardon Smith Lecture Theatre, while an area within the Zoology Department was used as Association Office, Writing Room and Smoke Room.

We know the majority of host duties would have been carried out by Frederick J. North, who was Keeper of Geology and Archibald H. Lee, Museum Secretary, because they are listed on the programme as Honorary Local Secretaries. It is most likely we have them to thank for the ephemera held in the Library, including copies of the programme, associate and staff badges, reception invites, day trip tickets and the official group photograph, taken on the steps of the Museum.

The first day of the conference began with registration, followed by a Council meeting and visit to Cardiff Castle and a reception at the South Wales Institute of Engineers in the evening. The programme states this event as requiring Morning dress code which, during this time period would be a three piece suit for the men, and smart day dresses for the women, or general smart clothing suitable for formal social events.

The second day began with official welcomes by the Lord Mayor of Cardiff, Alderman R. G. Robinson, and the President of the National Museum Wales, Sir Leonard Twiston-Davies. This was followed by a number of papers read by delegates [all fully listed in the programme], gathering for the official conference photograph, and a Civic Reception at City Hall, hosted by the Lord Mayor [with refreshments, music and dancing].

1948 was the year that St Fagans National Museum of History was first opened to the public as the St Fagans Folk Museum and to mark this, a visit was arranged for the afternoon of day three. St Fagans Castle, gardens, and grounds had been given to the National Museum Wales by the Earl of Plymouth in 1946 and over the next two years extensive work had been carried out to make it suitable to open to the public. According to the 1950 St Fagans guide book, in the Castle, new central heating, electric lighting, and fire appliances had to be installed along with a tickets office, refreshment room and public amenities. By 1948 our delegates would have had access to the Castle and its newly refurbished historic interiors such as the kitchen with two 16th century fireplaces, the Hall furnished in 17th century style, 17th and 18th century bedrooms and the early 19th century Library. They would also have enjoyed walking the gardens which included a mulberry grove, herb and rose gardens, vinery, fishponds, and flower-house interspersed with bronze sculptures by Sir William Goscombe John. Onsite also were a traditional wood-turner and a basket-maker, creating and selling their wares. The handbook also describes a delightful sounding small tea room with curtains made at the Holywell Textile Mills and watercolour paintings by Sir Frank Brangwyn. However, according to a Western Mail clipping, this didn’t open to the public until some weeks later on August 24th. Presumably a room within the Castle itself was used for the delegates’ buffet tea to which they were treated after being greeted by the Curator of St Fagans, Dr Iorwerth Peate.

Interestingly the programme provides times of the train service that ran from Cardiff Central Station to St Fagans. Sadly, the station at St Fagans is no longer there, the service being withdrawn in 1962, although a signal box and level crossing on the line remain.

The Annual General Meeting, Council Meeting and Federation of Officers Meeting  were all held on the next day along with more papers, including one by Mr Duncan Guthrie [of the Arts Council], on the upcoming “Festival of Britain, 1951”. There was also an evening reception in the Museum hosted by the President, and the then Director [Sir Cyril Fox], with refreshments and music by the City of Cardiff High School for Girls Orchestra. The programme states evening dress if possible for this event so it’s a shame we don’t hold any photographs of what would have been a sea of tuxedos and evening gowns.

The final day consisted of further papers in the morning followed by escape and fresh air with visits to the Newport Corporation Museum and the Legionary Museum and Roman Amphitheatre at Caerleon during the afternoon.

The September 1948 issue of Museums Journal contains a full report on the conference, with detailed examination of all papers presented and the discussions they generated. It also lists the delegates including those from overseas. The report concludes with thanks to the National Museum Cardiff for the welcome and hospitality accorded to the 240 delegates, with special mention to North and Lee [who would certainly have earned their salaries over those five days!].

Anna Edwards, yn siarad am y ddarganfyddiad o’r Gelc Bronington ar eu fferm hi yn 2014:

Roedden ni wedi perchen ar y tir am dair mlynedd pan ddarganfyddon ni'r casgliad, er ein bod ni wedi rhentu o am flynyddoedd cyn hynny. Doedd neb wedi bod yno efo canfodyddion metel o'r blaen.

Dw'i bob amser yn gwerthfawrogi hanes a dwi'n cofio gorlethu'n gyffrous.  Mae wybodaeth leol wedi dysgi i ni bod llawer o weithgareddau wedi bod yn yr ardal yn y gorffennol fel yn ystod y Rhyfel Cartref a'r diwydiant halen.  Mae ffermio o dydd i ddydd wedi agor i fyny crochenwaith man, botwmau ond mae arwyddocad a phwysigrwydd y casgliad yn syfrdanol a mwy nag unrhywbeth gallwn i fod wedi dychmygu.

Fel y mwyafrif o bethau pwysig sy'n digwydd yn ein bywyd; mae digwyddiad pegynol fel hwn yn troi i fyny ar siawns.

Collodd fy ngwr ei oriadau yn ystod y cynhaeaf a gofynnodd i'r defnyddwyr canfodyddion metel lleol i helpu. Cafodd fy ngwr ei oriadau nôl a rhoddodd o wahoddiad i'r dynion i ddod yn ôl yn eu hamser hamdden.

Roedd gweld a theimlo'r casgliad yn ryfeddol ac yn gyffrous i fod y person cyntaf i wisgo'r modrwy ers 500 mlynedd. Roedd y cyflwr yn gysefin ac yn edrych yn newydd sbon. Roedd rhaid i ni eistedd i lawr i werthfawrogi'r sefyllfa. I bwy roedd hi’n perthyn? Pwy wisgodd o? Sut bobl oedden nhw? Oedd y trysor wedi ei guddio neu ddwyn?

Mae darganfod y casgliad wedi cryfhau ein cysylltiad efo'r tir ble rydyn ni wedi gweithio mor galed. Mae'n fraint i gyrraedd mor bell ac yn anrhydedd mawr i fod yn gysylltiedig efo'r arian a'r modrwy. Tystiolaeth o'r gorfennol, pressenol a'r dyfodol i ni.

Yn ogystal â hyn mae'n syndod i mi am y diddordeb sydd wedi ei gynyddu yn lleol ac ymhellach. Ymddangosodd yn y papur newydd, derbynion alwadau ffôn o radio Chicago a siaradon yn fyw i holl dalaith Illinois, mwy i ddilyn!

Mae'n bleser gweld y plant ysgol yn cael eu cynnwys yn y cyffro ac aelodau'r gymuned trwy’r prosiect - "Buried in the Borderlands"