Amgueddfa Blog

Diweddariad: Oherwydd y galwad poblogaidd rydym nawr yn agor ein cystadleuaeth #MinecraftEichAmguedda i blant chwech oed! Rhannwch a gadewch i'r plant chwech oed ledled y Genedl wybod!

Cystadleuaeth i blant 6-11 oed

Y her: Defnyddiwch eich dychymyg i adeiladu amgueddfa ddelfrydol yn Minecraft. Adeiladwch adeilad mawreddog a’i lenwi gyda’ch hoff 

wrthrychau. Gallwch chi ddewis unrhyw wrthrych o’n saith amgueddfa – deinosor, ceiniog Rufeinig neu dŷ o Sain Ffagan!

Gwobrau: Cyfle i ennill taith tu ôl i’r llenni i’r dosbarth cyfan yn eich hoff amgueddfa! (Pan fydd yr ysgolion yn ailagor)

Bydd gwobr i bob dosbarth blynyddoedd 2 i 6.

Dyddiad cau: 30 Mehefin 2020

The now quiet space of National Museum Cardiff’s contemporary art galleries has most recently played host to the Museum’s first full-scale series of photographic exhibitions. The artwork displayed comprised part of the museum’s first ‘Photography Season’, presenting work by four photographers: August Sander (1876–1964), Bernd (1931–2007) and Hilla Becher (1934–2015), and Martin Parr (b. 1952). While Parr’s exhibition sat opposite the contemporary art galleries in the Museum’s designated photography gallery, Bernd and Hilla Becher: Industrial Visions was shown on the upper level of the contemporary spaces. The Bechers’ work was thematically linked to that presented downstairs, ARTIST ROOMS: August Sander (October 2019-March 2020).

For myself and two other fabulous volunteers, March marked the end of a three-month exhibition evaluation placement as part of the ARTIST ROOMS programme within Sander’s portrait photography exhibition space. I would like to briefly expand upon the role that I undertook in this two-part blog and highlight the value of the process of collecting and collating exhibition evaluation feedback.

It is valuable to give a few details of the photographer August Sander (1876–1964). Sander was a German-born photographer and in 1911 began the first series of portraits for his seminal work People of the 20th Century. ARTIST ROOMS: August Sander presented over eighty photographs – produced as part of this project – which classify individuals according to profession and social class. The portraits are placed on long-term loan to ARTIST ROOMS, a UK-wide programme jointly delivered by the National Galleries of Scotland and Tate. The ARTISTS ROOMS programme’s aim is to show the work of each of the 40 artists it represents in dedicated solo exhibitions across the UK. Through ARTIST ROOMS important works of art can be widely seen by visitors and, importantly, it also gives young people the opportunity to get involved in creative projects, learn more about art and artists, and develop new skills.

My role, as one of the three exhibition evaluation placements, was to allow visitors to ARTIST ROOMS: August Sander a chance to fill in an online survey on one of two iPads lent to the museum by ARTIST ROOMS for its duration. The survey asked the visitor a multitude of questions about their experience of the exhibition. It also asked some statistical questions, which could be omitted or simply passed back to us to reset.

Additionally, we chatted to visitors in the exhibition space, including those who wanted to discuss the exhibition informally with us. As the weekends always tend to draw in a diverse and greater number of visitors, at least one of us tried to come on Saturdays for a few hours to do the surveys, as well as undertake at least one shift during the week, sometimes in a pair, occasionally all together and at other times singly.

The second part of the blog expands upon my reasons for wishing to undertake this placement and the importance of exhibition evaluation.

Last week, we launched an online questionnaire asking for your experiences and feelings of living in Wales during the coronavirus pandemic. From the responses we’ve received so far, it seems that a number of you are finding comfort and peace of mind through making – from quilts to facemasks, scrub bags to small embroideries. The connection between making and improved mental health is of course widely-known, with studies showing that craft and the visual arts can help to alleviate anxiety and stress in some people.

The textile collection at St Fagans includes several pieces which reveal the historic interplay between craft and mental health. These include needlework stitched by sailors on long voyages away from home, to more formal forms of occupational therapy made by convalescing patients. In all cases, we can only assume that the repetitive rhythm of the making process, and the focus required to complete the task, must have benefitted the makers in some way. I say ‘assume’ because the voices of these makers are usually missing from the narrative, which makes documenting current experiences of crafting through the pandemic even more important.

One of the most poignant pieces in the collection is a tablecloth made at Whitchurch Hospital, embroidered with the signatures of a group of soldier-patients and staff in 1917. During the First World War, the Cardiff City Mental Hospital (as Whitchurch was then called) was ceded to the military and became known as the Welsh Metropolitan War Hospital (1915-19). Civilian psychiatric patients were moved to other institutions, while injured soldiers returning from the frontline occupied their beds. From 1917 until 1919, the hospital specialized in both orthopaedic and mental health conditions.   

The signatures embroidered on the tablecloth include two important figures in the history of psychiatric care in Wales – Dr Edwin Goodall and Matron Florence Raynes. Goodall, an eminent psychiatrist who trained at Guy’s Hospital in London, was appointed the first Medical Superintendent of Whitchurch in 1906, two years before the hospital opened. He was awarded a CBE in 1919 for his pioneering treatment of shell-shock. Florence Raynes was also a trailblazer in her own right, being the first woman to have overall responsibility for the hospital's entire nursing staff. 

The exact reasons for creating the tablecloth are unknown. Was it made as a form of occupational or diversional therapy for the soldiers? Could it have been an exhibition piece or a fund-raiser? Or perhaps initiated as a memento for a patient, nurse or doctor? Despite several attempts in recent years to unravel its history, the tablecloth remains a mystery. 

In general, the feelings and intentions of makers are frustratingly absent from our records, and we know very little about the emotions of the people who crafted the historic objects in our care. How did they feel about making in times of crisis, ill-health or confinement? What did the creative process give them? If you're finding solace in your sewing machine or knitting needles during these difficult days, please consider sharing your lockdown crafting experience with us through the questionnaire. We want to hear your story to ensure that the wellbeing benefits of making in the present do not go untold. 

 

Bury a time capsule – for children of all ages from very young up to 100+

Part 1 – introduction and what you’ll need to get started

A great way to leave something for future people to find is to make a time capsule. Fill it with everyday items from ‘now’ and bury it in your garden or you could put it in the corner of the attic where no-one goes! 

After the ‘lockdown’ you could always make a time capsule with your classmates in school and bury it on the school grounds.

I’ve made quite a few time capsules over the years. I used to make them with my son when he was growing up and we buried them all over the place! We hoped that they would last a hundred years or more so that somebody would find them and see our things.

I have made two capsules with schools in Swansea too. One we buried at Waun Wen School, and one we buried in the grounds of Penlan Community Centre. Chris Coleman, who was the Wales football manager at the time came to help Waun Wen School bury their time capsule in the school garden. He grew up in Waun Wen. 

Penlan children buried their capsule in the Community Centre garden.

We used big plastic boxes for the capsule because there were a lot of children who wanted to add something.

What you’ll need

When you make your capsule you can use any empty container that you might have in the house. I like to use empty coffee jars or any jar that has a screw lid (I tend to raid our re-cycling box).

I couldn’t find an empty coffee jar this time but luckily we had an empty marmalade jar. 

Gwahanol gynhwysydd i'w ddefnyddio fel capsiwl

Remember, the container you use will be very interesting to future people too!

 

Part 2

What goes into your Time Capsule

I searched around my house for things to put in. 

Engraifft o gynnwys i'w rhoi yn y capsiwl

The items should not be expensive, just little things you don’t mind burying. I chose:

  • an ASDA receipt so people can see how much things cost
  • a toy car
  • a plastic dinosaur
  • an elastic band
  • a safety pin
  • a keyring with my blood type on it
  • a puzzle from a Christmas cracker
  • my Welsh learner’s badge
  • a pencil
  • three coins, a two pence, a five pence and a one penny
  • an old sim card from a mobile phone
  • a badge I got on a birthday card which says ‘aged to perfection’
  • a Marie Curie badge of daffodils

 

Part 3

Write a little note to go in the jar. It can say things about you like your name and age and todays date. Also write a little explanation of why you are burying the capsule. If you can add a picture of you then good, but you can always draw a picture of yourself too. 

You could write your thoughts of the Covid 19 lockdown, what you miss the most or who you miss most.

You could write a letter to your future self and dig the capsule up yourself in twenty year’s time!

Make sure your container is clean and dry before putting your things in. Screw the lid on tight.

Jar llawn cynnwys yn barod i'w gladdu

Then if you have some tape (doesn’t matter if you don’t) put an extra seal around the lid to keep any water out. 

tap gyda'r capsiwl

Part 4

Send us pictures of your time capsule!

We would love to see what you put in your time capsule

Share your pictures with us via the Amgueddfa Cymru Twitter account!

Part 5

You are now ready to bury the capsule. Remember to make a ‘treasure’ map of where you buried it.

This is in case you want to do more than one and you’ll have a way of knowing where they all are.

Engraifft o fap yn dangos lle mae'r capsiwl wedi cael ei gladdu

 

Cyn dyfeisio’r trên locomotif, cyflymder a nerth y ceffyl oedd pinacl trafnidiaeth ar y tir. Newidiodd trenau stêm y cysyniad o gyflymdra’n llwyr, a gallai llawer mwy o nwyddau a phobl gael eu symud ymhellach, yn gynt ac yn rhatach.

Gweddnewidiwyd sawl agwedd o fywyd pobl gyffredin gan ddyfodiad yr oes stêm. Mewn llai na chenhedlaeth, tyfodd rheilffyrdd o fod yn ddyfeisiadau hynod i fod yn rhan ganolog o fywyd.

Dechreuodd y chwyldro ym Merthyr Tudful ar 21 Chwefror 1804 gyda’r cofnod cyntaf o daith ar gledrau dan bŵer stêm. Y dynion yng ngofal y fenter oedd y peiriannydd o Gernyw Richard Trevithick a Samuel Homfray, perchennog Gweithfeydd Haearn Penydarren.

Ffwrneisi a melinau rholio Gweithfeydd Haearn Penydarren, gyda’r ffwrneisi chwyth i’r chwith yn y cefndir. O flaen yr adeiladau ar y dde mae ceffyl yn tynnu tri llwyth o haearn bar – dechrau’r daith i Abercynon lle byddai’n cael ei lwytho ar fad i’w gludo ar hyd Camlas Morgannwg i’r porthladd yng Ngaerdydd. Llwyth o’r fath a gludwyd yn llwyddiannus gan locomotif Trevithick. Ysgythriad gan John George Wood ar gyfer ei lyfr “The Principal Rivers of Wales”, 1812.

Roedd Trevithick wedi datblygu injan stêm gwasgedd uchel gryno, llonydd, allai gael ei hadeiladu’n rhatach ac oedd yn cynhyrchu mwy o bŵer na cynlluniau tebyg o’r un maint. Cytunodd Homfray a Trevithick ar bartneriaeth i gynhyrchu injanau stêm llonydd. Yn 1801 ac 1803 roedd Trevithick wedi adeiladu a phrofi cerbydau stêm arbrofol ar y ffordd, ond heb fagu diddordeb y cyhoedd. Roedd de Cymru ar y pryd yn frith o dramffyrdd yn gwasanaethu’r  gweithfeydd dur, y chwareli a’r pyllau glo – pob un gyda cheffylau yn tynnu cerbydau ar gledrau haearn. Gobeithiodd y byddai marchnad ehangach ar gyfer ei injanau stêm pwerus petai’n gallu profi eu gwerth ar y rheilffyrdd. Yn y gobaith o ehangu ei fusnes adeiladu injanau ei hun, cytunodd Homfray i ariannu’r gwaith o adeiladu locomotif stêm.

Llwyddodd y locomotif i dynnu pum wagen yn carrio deg tunnell o haearn, a 70 o ddynion oedd wedi bachu lle ar y wageni am y daith 9¾ milltir. Dros yr wythnosau canlynol gwnaeth y locomotif sawl taith o un pen y tramffordd i’r llall.

Cafodd y locomotif gryn dipyn o gyhoeddusrwydd yng Nghymru a thu hwnt.

Gan y byddai’r cledrau brau yn torri’n aml gan y locomotif trwm, cafodd ei throi’n injan llonydd ymhen ychydig fisoedd. Adeiladodd Trevithick ddwy injan arall yn Lloegr ym 1905 a 1908, ond methodd â chanfod cefnogaeth ariannol.

Tren Cyflym y Glowyr, Rheilffordd Saundersfoot, 1900s. Gwasanaeth sylfaenol oedd efallai yn flas o’r daith gyntaf honno ar deithiau cynnar locomotif Penydarren ym 1804, pan fachodd 70 o weithwyr ar y cyfle i fwynhau’r daith ar y pum wagen. Cyflwynwyd gwasanaeth Rheilffordd Saundersfoot ym 1900 i gludo glowyr o Cilgeti i Lofa Bonville’s Court. Bathwyd yr enw eironig gan gyhoeddwr y cerdyn post.

Er bod injanau Trevithick yn fethiant masnachol, roedd y tân wedi’i gynnau. Adeiladodd peiriannwyr yng ngogledd Lloegr – Timothy Hackworth a George Stephenson yn bennaf – gyfres o injanau locomotif dibynadwy yn y 1810au i gludo wageni glo o’r pyllau i’r dociau. Arweiniodd hyn at benderfyniad Rheilffordd Stockton & Darlington i ddefnyddio trenau stêm ar ei hagor ym 1825, a’r rheilffordd stêm hir gyntaf rhwng Lerpwl a Manceinion ym 1830.

Chwarter canrif yn ddiweddarach, nid arbrawf oedd y trên stêm ond grym dibynadwy. Ymhen rhai degawdau roedd trenau stêm i’w gweld ar reilffyrdd ym mhob cyfandir.

Yr ailgread o locomotif Penydarren yn Oriel Rhwydweithiau Amgueddfa Genedlaethol y Glannau, Abertawe.      

Gellir gweld ailgread o locomotif arloesol Penydarren gan Richard Richard Trevithick yn Amgueddfa Genedlaethol y Glannau, Abertawe, lle bydd hi i’w gweld yn codi stêm o hyd ar adegau.

Efallai y bydd y ffilm yma o ddiddordeb i chi hefyd:

https://museum.wales/articles/2008-12-15/Richard-Trevithicks-steam-locomotive