: Cynaliadwyedd

Celebrating St. Fagans Heritage Welsh Apples

Luciana Skidmore, 8 Medi 2023

This year we celebrate our heritage Welsh apples by exhibiting samples of fruits that are sustainably grown in our orchards located in Kennixton farm, Llwyn-yr-eos farm, Llainfadyn and the Castle Orchard. You will find our Apple Exhibition at the Kennixton barn, next to the Kennixton farmhouse in St. Fagans.

Every year our apples are harvested to produce apple juice. The crop of 2022 was our most fruitful to date generating 400 bottles that were pressed by the Morris family in Crickhowell. You will find the St. Fagans apple juice available for sale at the St. Fagans Museum shop and Gwalia store.

For centuries apples have been grown in most parts of Wales, holding a cultural pride of place as a fruit of choice. They have been grown in cottage gardens, small orchards, smallholdings and farms.  The skills of pruning, grafting and tending the trees were passed from generation to generation.

After the second World War fruit growing suffered a decline.  Even the formerly widespread production of cider in the south-eastern area came to an end. Nowadays apples are imported from distant regions of the world and are available in supermarkets throughout the whole year. 

It is our mission to preserve our heritage Welsh apple trees for future generations. In the orchards of St. Fagans, you will find Welsh apple varieties such as ‘Monmouthshire Beauty’, ‘Gabalfa’, ‘Channel Beauty’, ‘St. Cecilia’, ‘Baker’s Delicious’, ‘Croen Mochyn’, ‘Trwyn Mochyn’, ‘Bardsey Island’, ‘Morgan Sweet’, ‘Gwell na Mil’, ‘Diamond’, ‘Machen’, ‘Llwyd Hanner Goch’, ‘Pen Caled’ and ‘Pig y Glomen’.

If you are coming to the St. Fagans Food Festival this year, please visit our Apple Exhibition at the Kennixton Barn.

Everlasting flowers in St. Fagans

Luciana Skidmore, 1 Medi 2022

The act of drying flowers dates back to ancient times. In the past flowers and herbs were dried and utilised for decorative, medicinal and culinary purposes. In Medieval times they were used to repel insects and even conceal unpleasant odours. Drying flowers became a popular hobby and preservation method in the Victorian period in England. For thousands of years flowers have had a symbolic meaning in rituals, passages, religious activities and artistic expression. Dried flowers are now more fashionable than ever due to their everlasting beauty and convenience.

This year thousands of flowers were grown in the gardens of St. Fagans for the purpose of drying. They have been naturally air-dried and beautiful flower arrangements were created by our garden trainees. These are now available to purchase in the Museum store. 

Besides their outstanding and long-lasting beauty dried flower arrangements offer many advantages. They can be used in weddings as bouquets, buttonholes, corsages and centrepieces. Because they are dried, they do not require water. They can be bought months in advance and stored with ease, releasing the pressure of having to care for fresh flowers on the big day. They can also be kept and preserved as memories of such a special day. 

They are perfect for home decoration or gifting.  You can create permanent floral arrangements that will enhance your home without the need to buy fresh flowers every week. Did you know that imported fresh flowers can have 10 times the carbon footprint of flowers grown in the UK? Imported cut flowers are flown thousands of miles in refrigerated airplane holds. When grown in colder climates they need heated greenhouses which generate higher carbon dioxide emissions. Not to mention the use of pesticides and fertilizers used in the production of perfect blooms. Fresh roses in February? Not so rosy for our planet.

The cut flowers grown in St. Fagans gardens have been grown from seeds sown in April in our unheated greenhouses. They were planted outside in May when the weather was warming up and have been growing happily and healthily producing beautiful blooms throughout Summer. No pesticides, fertilizers or harmful chemicals were used in this process. Besides being grown sustainably the flowers also provide a source of nectar for pollinators including bees and butterflies. It is always a great joy to admire the hive of activity in our cut flower bed. 

The flowers are harvested in dry weather when they are partially or fully open. Excess foliage is removed, small bunches of flowers are tied together and hung upside down on bamboo canes or strings in a dark and dry area with good air circulation. The flowers are left to dry for two to three weeks until completely dry. Floral arrangements including bouquets, posies, buttonholes, corsages, floral crowns and wreaths can be created with dried flowers. 

There is a vast number of plants that can be dried and used in floral arrangements. Drying flowers such as lavender and hydrangeas or grasses such as Stipa gigantea and Pampas grass is a great way to get started. The stars of our cut flower garden this year are: Limonium sinuatum, Craspedia globosa, Helipterum roseum, Achillea millefolium ‘Cassis’, Limonium suworowii ‘Rat Tail’ and the soft grass Panicum elegans ‘Sprinkles’. 

If you are coming to St. Fagans National Museum of History, please visit our magnificent gardens and take a look at the beautiful floral arrangements available in the Museum shop. 



Amgueddfeydd mwy gwyrdd

Amgueddfa Cymru, 28 Hydref 2021

Gyda'r cynnydd yn lefelau carbon deuocsid yn yr atmosffer a thymheredd byd-eang, mae taclo newid hinsawdd yn bwysicach nag erioed.


Yr wythnos hon cynhelir Cynhadledd Newid Hinsawdd y Cenhedloedd Unedig (COP26) yn Glasgow er mwyn ceisio uno'r byd i ymladd newid hinsawdd, ac dyma ni'n manteisio ar y cyfle i weld sut i greu amgueddeydd mwy gwyrdd.


Ym mis Medi 2019 dyma ni'n ymuno ag eraill i ddatgan argyfwng hinsawdd ac ecolegol byd-eang. Dros y 10 mlynedd nesaf a thu hwnt byddwn yn lleihau ein hôl-troed carbon a'n heffaith ar yr amgylchedd.


Ein hyfforddiant

Rydym wedi datblygu cwrs hyfforddi ar lythrennedd carbon, wedi ei achredu gan yr Ymddiriedolaeth Garbon. Mae dros 100 o staff bellach yn garbon llythrennog, ac rydym yn edrych ymlaen i ddarparu'r hyfforddiant i weddill ein staff dros y flwyddyn nesaf.

Rydym hefyd wedi derbyn statws Sefydliad Carbon Llythrennog Lefel Efydd am ein hyffroddiant, a byddwn yn cymryd rhan yn y Diwrnod Gweithredu Lythrennedd Carbon cyntaf ar 1 Tachwedd. Fel rhan o'r hyfforddiant, gwnaeth staff addewidion i leihau eu hôl-troed carbon, a recordio fideo byr:


Ein Staff

I'n helpu i ddod yn garbon niwtral, rydym wrthi yn recriwtio Cydlynydd Datblygiad Cynaliadwy. Byddant yn llywio ein hymateb i'r argyfwng amgylcheddol drwy ddatblygu ein cynllun gweithredu rheoli carbon a phrojectau lleihau carbon a rheoli tir gwyrdd. Edrychwn ymlaen at rannu mwy gyda chi'n fuan!


Ffyrdd o weithio

Ar hyn o bryd mae’r ymgynghorwyr GEP Environmental yn cynnal Adolygiad Carbon ym mhob amgueddfa. Bydd yr adolygiad yn dangos beth yw ein hôl troed carbon presennol, ac yn adnabod cyfleon i leihau ein carbon ym mhob agwedd o'n gwaith. Bydd hefyd yn cyfrannu at nod Llywodraeth Cymru o greu sector cyhoeddus carbon niwtral erbyn 2030.

Arddangosfeydd ac Allestyn
Bydd newid hinsawdd a chynaliadwyedd yn dod yn rhan o'n rhaglenni arddagnosfeydd ac addysg cyhoeddus. Bydd yr arddangosfa mwynau sydd ar y gweill yn edrych ar effaith amgylcheddol gwrthrychau bob dydd fel ffonau symudol.

Ein digwyddiadau
Rydym wastad yn chwilio am ffyrdd o wneud ein gweithagreddau yn fwy cynaliadwy. Byddwn unwaith eto yn cynnal y digwyddiad cynaliadwyedd Olion i sbarduno eraill i weithredu.


Ein hymgysylltu

Diolch i 700 o wirfoddolwyr a 100 o bobl ifanc greadigol (Cynhyrchwyr Amgueddfa Cymru) rydym yn hyrwyddo llythrennedd carbon drwy gydweithio â phobl ifanc. Drwy gydweithio â chymunedau gobeithiwn greu Cymru fwy gwyrdd a gwneud yn siŵr fod popeth a wnawn yn llesol i'r amgylchedd.


Amlinelliad person aur gyda swigen lleferydd gyda'r testun 'Carbon Literate Organisation Bronze'

From Student to Scientist

Kelsey Harrendence, 28 Gorffennaf 2021

The next steps in a Professional Training Year

It’s been a little while since my last blog post and since then there has been a lot of exciting things happening! The scientific paper I have been working on that describes a new species of marine shovelhead worm (Magelonidae) with my training year supervisor Katie Mortimer-Jones and American colleague James Blake is finished and has been submitted for publication in a scientific journal. The opportunity to become a published author is not something I expected coming into this placement and I cannot believe how lucky I am to soon have a published paper while I am still an undergraduate.

There are thousands of scientific journals out there, all specialising in different areas. Ours will be going in the capstone edition of the Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, a journal which covers systematics in biological sciences, so perfect for our paper. Every journal has its own specifications to abide by in order to be published in them. These rules cover everything from the way you cite and reference other papers, how headings and subheadings are set out, the font style and size, and how large images should be. A significant part of writing a paper that many people might not consider is ensuring you follow the specifications of the journal. It’s very easy to forget or just write in the style you always have!

Once you have checked and doubled checked your paper and have submitted  to the journal you wish to be published in, the process of peer reviewing begins. This is where your paper is given to other scientists, typically 2 or 3, that are specialists in the field. These peer-reviewers read through your paper and determine if what you have written has good, meaningful science in it and is notable enough to be published. They also act as extra proof-readers, finding mistakes you may have missed and suggesting altered phrasing to make things easier to understand.

I must admit it is a little nerve wracking to know that peer reviewers have the option to reject all your hard work if they don’t think it is good enough. However, the two reviewers have been nothing but kind and exceptionally helpful. They have both accepted our paper for publication. Having fresh sets of eyes look at your work is always better at finding mistakes than just reading it over and over again, especially if those eyes are specialists in the field that you are writing in.

As you would expect, the process of peer-reviewing takes some time. So, while we have been waiting for the reviews to come back, I have already made great progress on starting a second scientific paper based around marine shovelhead worms with my supervisor. While the story of the paper isn’t far along enough yet to talk about here, I can talk about the fantastic opportunity I had to visit the Natural History Museum, London!

We are currently investigating a potentially new European species of shovelhead worm which is similar to a UK species described by an Amgueddfa Cymru scientist and German colleagues. Most of the type specimens of the latter species are held at the Natural History Museum in London. Type material is scientifically priceless, they are the individual specimens from which a new species is first described and given a scientific name. Therefore, they are the first port of call, if we want to determine if our specimens are a new species or not.

The volume of material that the London Natural History Museum possesses of the species we are interested in is very large and we had no idea what we wanted to loan from them. So, in order to make sure we requested the most useful specimens for our paper, we travelled to London to look through all of the specimens there. We were kindly showed around the facilities by one of the museum’s curators and allowed to make use of one of the labs in order to view all of the specimens. The trip was certainly worth it. We took a lot of notes and found out some very interesting things, but most importantly we had a clear idea of the specific specimens that we wanted to borrow to take photos of and analyse closer back in Cardiff. 

Overall, I can say with confidence that the long drive was certainly more than worth it! I’m very excited to continue with this new paper and even more excited to soon be able to share the results of our first completed and published paper, watch this space…

Thank you once again to both National Museum Cardiff and Natural History Museum, London for making this trip possible.

Palwch er Iechyd a Lles

Sharon & Iwan Ford, 29 Ebrill 2020

Roedd gerddi cynnyrch a blodau yn rhan nodweddiadol o gartrefi Glowyr. Man pwysig lle tyfwyd bwyd, lle'r oedd colomennod, ieir ac yn aml mochyn hefyd yn cael eu cadw. Sharon Ford yw Rheolwr Dysgu a Chyfranogi yn Big Pit Amgueddfa Lofaol Cymru. Ysgrifennodd yr erthygl hon ar gyfer ein blog, i ddathlu buddion iechyd a lles garddio - yn enwedig yn ystod y cyfnod cloi hwn. Mae'n llawn llawenydd garddio ac awgrymiadau a chynghorion defnyddiol, a chafodd Sharon fwy nag ychydig o help gan gyd-arddwr brwd - ei mab, Iwan.

‘We may think we are nurturing our garden, but of course it's our garden that is really nurturing us’   

Jenny Uglow

Dwi erioed wedi bod mor ddiolchgar am fy ngardd. Mae’n cynnig lloches y tu hwnt i bedair wal y tŷ. Mae’r tywydd braf wedi’n galluogi ni i fod tu allan pan nad ydym yn gweithio, i fynd o dan draed pan fyddwn angen ychydig o lonydd, ac wrth gwrs i roi mwy o sylw nag arfer i’r ardd. Mae bod â rhywbeth i gynllunio a chanolbwyntio arno wedi bod yn wych am dynnu’n meddyliau oddi ar yr argyfwng byd-eang a bod oddi wrth deulu a ffrindiau. Mae hyd yn oed ein mab 8 oed bywiog, Iwan wedi bod yn ymwneud mwy â’r ardd eleni, gan gynllunio pa lysiau mae eisiau eu cynaeafu a’u bwyta mewn ychydig fisoedd, ac mae’r awyr iach a’r gweithgarwch yn ei flino erbyn diwedd y dydd. Mae hyn yn bwysig gan ei fod arfer cael gwersi nofio, gymnasteg a rygbi.

Mae effaith bositif garddio ar iechyd corfforol a meddyliol yn hysbys i bawb, a gall helpu gyda nifer o broblemau fel pwysau gwaed uchel, gorbryder yn ogystal â phroblemau iechyd meddwl mwy difrifol.

Rydyn ni’n arbennig o lwcus i gael gardd adref a rhandir dros y ffordd. Nid pawb sydd mor lwcus, ond gall dim ond ambell i bot o blanhigion neu blannu llysiau mewn corneli a chilfachau leihau straen a hybu hunan barch. Mae gofalu am blanhigion tŷ yn rhoi teimlad o bwrpas i rywun, ac mae’n lle da i gychwyn os nad oes gennych brofiad o arddio.

Gofynnais i Iwan os oedd eisiau rhannu ei gyngor ar dyfu a gofalu am blanhigion – mae’n arddwr profiadol erbyn hyn, gan ei fod wrthi ers yn blentyn bach. Roedd hefyd eisiau rhannu ei gyngor ar gadw ieir, rhag ofn bod unrhyw un yn meddwl cael ieir i’w cadw’n hapus! Mae llawer o dystiolaeth am fuddion therapiwtig cadw ieir hefyd.

Fy enw i yw Iwan Ford. Rwy’n 8 oed ac yn byw yn Blaenafon. Y dyddiau hyn, rydw i adref gyda Mam a Dad drwy’r amser. Mae’n iawn, ond rwy’n colli fy ffrindiau a fy nghefndryd. Rydyn ni’n lwcus iawn achos mae ganddo ni ddwy ardd a dwy iâr. Enwau’r ieir yw Barbara a Millie. Roedd gen i iâr arall o’r enw Penny, ond roedd hi’n sâl iawn a bu farw ychydig wythnosau yn ôl. Fe wnaethon ni ei chladdu yn yr ardd.

Fe gawson ni Millie pan glywodd rhywun fod Barbara ar ben ei hun. Silkie yw Millie, ac mae’n ddoniol iawn ac yn drwsgwl. Mae ganddi draed mawr ac mae’n cerdded dros bopeth. Mae’n gyfeillgar iawn ac yn fy nilyn rownd yr ardd. Mae gan ieir silkie glustiau glas a phlu blewog. Iâr fantam yw Barbara, ac mae ganddi blu hardd iawn. Mae plu oren o gwmpas ei gwddw. Mae’n dodwy wyau bach iawn ond mae nhw’n flasus iawn. Mae nhw’n amlwg yn ieir hapus iawn.

Rwy’n helpu Mam a Dad gyda’r garddio achos mae ganddo ni randir a gardd wrth y tŷ. Rwy’n hoffi plannu, dyfrio a hel llysiau a ffrwythau. Mae gen i ardd lysiau fach fy hun ac rwy wedi plannu ffa Ffrengig, pwmpen, maro a ffa coch yn barod. Mae hadau angen pridd da a digon o gompost, haul a dŵr. Rhaid i chi gofio dyfrio yn aml neu chewch chi ddim planhigion.

Cyngor plannu Iwan:

  • Llenwch y potiau gyda chompost. Rhowch yr hedyn i mewn. Weithiau byddwch yn llenwi hanner y pot gyda chompost, rhoi’r hedyn i mewn ac wedyn mwy o gompost. Weithiau byddwch yn llenwi’r pot a gwneud twll gyda’ch bys i roi’r hedyn i mewn. Cofiwch ddyfrio, a bydd yr hadau yn tyfu mewn ychydig wythnosau. Pan fyddan nhw wedi tyfu ychydig, a dim perygl o rew, gallwch eu plannu yn y ddaear.
  • Dim gardd? Gallwch blannu tatws mewn bwcedi neu fagiau compost. Mae tomatos yn tyfu fel hyn hefyd.
  • Cofiwch ysgrifennu enwau’r planhigion ar ffyn hufen ia a’u rhoi yn y potiau, er mwyn cofio beth yw beth.

Cyngor ieir Iwan:

  • Dyw ieir silkie ddim yn crwydro achos dydyn nhw ddim yn hedfan, felly mae nhw’n berffaith ar gyfer gerddi bychan.
  • Mae baw ieir yn dda i’r pridd. Pan mae’r compost baw ieir yn barod, gallwch ei gymysgu yn y pridd i gael planhigion mawr a chryf.
  • Mae ieir yn hoffi cynrhon blawd. Rydyn ni’n rhoi rhai i’r ieir ac yn rhoi rhai i adar yr ardd hefyd. ‘Beaky and Feather’ yw hoff fwyd ieir, ac mae’n gwneud i’w plu sgleinio.