Amgueddfa Blog

Dippy yw ein henw ni ar y sgerbwd deinosor hoff, ac rydyn ni’n gwybod fod ganddo hanes diddorol. Ond ai Diplodocus fu’r enw ar y ffosilau yma erioed? Wel, na, mae hynny'n annhebygol...

Rydyn ni wedi clywed sut y daeth 'Dippy' i Lundain ym 1905 yn gast plastr o'r esgyrn ffosil gwreiddiol yn Amgueddfa Carnegie, Pittsburgh. A, diolch i balaentolegwyr, gallwn ei ddychmygu'n anifail byw yn pori coedwigoedd Jwrasig, 145-150 miliwn o flynyddoedd yn ôl, yn diogelu ei hun rhag ysglyfaethwyr gyda'i gynffon chwip.

 

Ond beth am weddill y stori? O ble ddaeth y ffosilau hyn?

AC-NMW

Ym 1898, diolch i'r diwydiant dur, Andrew Carnegie oedd un o'r dynion mwyaf cyfoethog yn y byd. Roedd yn brysur yn rhoi ei arian i lyfrgelloedd ac amgueddfeydd. Pan glywodd am y deinosoriaid anferth oedd yn cael eu darganfod yng ngorllewin America, dywedodd rywbeth fel “Dwi eisiau un o rheina!” ac anfonodd dîm o Amgueddfa Carnegie i chwilio am yr “anifail mwyaf anferth yma”.

Felly, ym 1899, yn nyddiau olaf Hen Orllewin America, cafodd sgerbwd Diplodocus ei ddarganfod yn Sheep Creek, Albany County, ar wastadeddau Wyoming. Y dyddiad, fel mae'n digwydd, oedd 4 Gorffennaf, Diwrnod Annibyniaeth America. Ac felly y cafodd y ffosil ei lysenw cyntaf gan dîm Carnegie, 'The Star Spangled Dinosaur'. Ond, ymhen hir a hwyr, cafodd y rhywogaeth newydd hon ei chyhoeddi yn swyddogol fel Diplodocus Carnegii.

Byddai safle'r cloddio wedi edrych yn debyg iawn i'r safle tebyg yma gerllaw yn Bone Cabin Quarry, yn yr un flwyddyn.

Mae'r lluniau yma o ddiwedd y 1800au o rannau eraill o Albany County, Wyoming, yn ein helpu i greu darlun (o Wikimedia Commons).

Enw cyntaf Dippy, 'Unkche ghila'

Ond beth am frodorion y gwastadeddau? Oni fyddai'r brodorion wedi darganfod ffosilau deinosor cyn y gwladychwyr Ewropeaidd? Yn ei llyfr, Fossil Legends of the First Americans, mae Adrienne Mayor yn dangos y gwnaethon nhw. Dychmygodd y brodorion ffurfiau gwreiddiol y ffosilau fel Madfallod Anferth, Adar y Taranau a Bwystfilod Dŵr, ac roedd sawl un o'r casglwyr deinosoriaid enwog yn dewis brodorion yn dywyswyr. Mae'r llyfr yma'n dangos fod y brodorion wedi sylwi ar y prosesau daearegol fel difodiant, llosgfynyddoedd a newid yn lefel y môr a’u bod yn sail i’w credoau am ffosilau.

( “Clear”, Pobl Lakota, 1900. Heyn & Matzen )

Y Lakota Sioux oedd brodorion y gwastadeddau lle cafwyd hyd i ffosilau Diplodocus. Ganwyd James LaPointe, pobl Lakota, ym 1893. Dyma hanes a glywodd pan yn fachgen:

“Roedd y Sioux yn galw'r creaduriaid hyn, sy'n cymharu'n fras â deinosoriaid, yn 'Unkche ghila'. Roedd y creaduriaid siâp rhyfedd yn crwydro'r tir mewn grwpiau mawr, ac yna'n diflannu. Mae esgyrn anferth y creaduriaid hyn, sydd bellach wedi diflannu, yn nhiroedd garw de a dwyrain y Bryniau Du. Dyw e ddim yn glir os wnaeth yr unkche ghila ddiflannu, ond mae daeareg y Sioux yn nodi eu bod yn dal i fod o gwmpas pan gododd y Bryniau Du o'r ddaear."

O lyfr James R. Walker, 1983, Lakota Myth.

Felly, trwy law Adrienne Mayor, dyma roi'r gair olaf i Wasanaeth Parciau Cenedlaethol yr UDA:

"Mae straeon a chwedlau'r brodorion yn cynnig persbectif unigryw i arwyddocâd ysbrydol traddodiadol ffosilau ac yn gyfle heb ei ail i ddangos y cysylltiad anhepgor rhwng pobl a natur." Jason Kenworthy a Vincent Santucci, A Preliminary Inventory of National Park Service Paleontological Resources in Cultural Resource Contexts.

We are about to say a fond farewell to Dippy the Dinosaur who will be taking a triumphant bow from National Museum Cardiff on 26 January.

Over the course of the past three months, 188,710 people have had the inspiring experience of witnessing, up close and personal, something truly unique - a diplodocus that walked our earth over 155 million years ago. To witness the look on the tens of thousands of children who set their eyes on Dippy as they entered our great hall, free of charge, has been deeply touching.

Dippy is with us today due to the vision of an extraordinary Scottish-American businessman, Andrew Carnegie, yes he of the New York concert hall fame, and who led the expansion of the American steel industry in the late nineteenth century. Carnegie was, and still is, through his Foundation, one of the world’s great philanthropists and benefactors, supporting museums, libraries, education, the arts and science across the globe.

In 1902, over dinner at Carnegie’s Skibo Castle, King Edward VII heard about a dinosaur, which was housed in the Carnegie Pittsburgh Museum. The King persuaded Carnegie to donate a cast of the diplodocus to the Natural History Museum in London as a gift, which was mounted there in 1907, the same year as we opened the doors of Amgueddfa Cymru here in Cardiff.

And now today, Dippy, made possible by Carnegie’s extraordinary lifelong commitment to philanthropy, is touring the UK, capturing the hearts and minds of millions of people, creating a sense of wonder and amazement wherever this dinosaur goes.

This is what Amgueddfa Cymru aims to do - inspire people and change lives for the greater good. This is what makes a partnership with our museums so special for private patrons as well as for businesses. We create relationships with people which transcend the mundane. We create experiences that are visceral, meaningful and long lasting and which are truly transformational. All of us can play a part, great or small, in supporting this noble ambition.

I encourage you all to join us in supporting not only the curation of the past, but the present as well, and with the vision of Carnegie, help shape the future. For more information on how we can work together with you please contact our Development team.

Where do I start when talking about the experience that has been Dippy?! 

Well he’s certainly been a phenomenon for us here at Amgueddfa Cymru. Right from when we first started installing him back in October last year, people were standing on the balcony watching the very efficient team from the Natural History Museum putting him together piece by piece. Of course we saved the head going on until last! I was fortunate to be permitted into the enclosure and up close to some of the replicated bones, which was very exciting for me.

In the first half term in October we had 53,898 visitors to the museum, an increase of 258% on the previous year. On the Wednesday we had over 10,000 visitors, which is a first for us! What we had been prepared for by a previous venue, Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum, but that might not instantly occur to you, is that we needed more toilet rolls! Not a very glamorous aspect of Exhibitions & Displays, but a very important one for our visitors! In my last blog I talked a lot about Snake poo, so I’m moving on swiftly from toilet rolls now before I gain a reputation for obsessing about poo! Our front of house staff had their work cut out for them; ensuring visitors could access the whole museum, answering questions on Dippy and keeping them safe. I spent some time in the Main Hall and these amazing people worked so hard. But it wasn’t just in the Main Hall. The galleries were full, especially our Natural History galleries, which was great as we had additional visitors to the museum to see Dippy, but they stayed to explore more of what we have to offer.

We have a special Dippy shop which has been equally full and busy, with staff rushed off their feet – my favourite item is the glittery dinosaur.  There may have been debate about what dinosaurs looked like, but I’m pretty sure no one has found evidence for sequins as yet! Our colleagues in the restaurant and cafe made special menus to account for the increase in visitor footfall, as well as the opportunity to make dinosaur cakes!

In our Temporary Exhibitions Gallery, which was open to the public during holidays and weekends, our colleagues from the Youth Forum worked with artist Megan Broadmeadow to create a strong message about Fast Fashion from recycled clothes. I’m trying to work out where we can keep the pterosaur, which is brilliant. Our messages about the climate emergency within the exhibition and also when Extinction Rebellion Cardiff came and held a ‘die in’ are, for me, highlights of what a museum can achieve when we work with people from outside our organization and be led by their inspiration and creativity.

I’ve spoken with staff from across the museum and everyone seems to have enjoyed having Dippy here, it’s going to seem very empty when he goes at the end of this month – you have until 26 January to see him.

Helo Cyfeillion y Gwanwyn,

Diolch am eich gwaith ar yr ymchwiliad Bylbiau Gwanwyn i Ysgolion. Rwyf wedi mwynhau darllen y sylwadau sef wedi ei rhannu hefo'r data tywydd. Diolch am eich negesau, ac rwyf yn gobeithio bod chi yn mwynhau'r prosiect. 

Mae nifer ohonoch wedi rhoi gwybod bod eich planhigion wedi cychwyn tyfu. Mae hyn yn newyddion gwych! Plîs cymrwch luniau a rhannwch dros Twitter neu mewn e-bost.

Mae eich planhigion yn tyfu:

Albert Primary School: The temperature changed throughout the week and there was a lot of rain. We think the bulbs may be starting to sprout.

Carnbroe Primary School: The plants are growing well.

Sandal Magna Community Academy: Some of our plants have started to grow leaves.

Ysgol Bro Pedr: A lovely dry week, apart from Friday. Our daffodil bulbs are starting to grow - exciting

High Cross Primary School: Hi professor plant the class’s plants are growing quite fast.

Hendredenny Park Primary: Hello, we can see little sprouts in our pots. There was no dead fly’s this week but there was a little bit of dirt .Bye

Hendredenny Park Primary: Some plant have started to sprout out of the soil.

High Cross Primary School: Hi professor plant the class’s plants are growing quite fast.

Sylwadau am y tywydd:

Ysgol Ysbyty Ifan: Glaw trwm iawn a llifogydd yng Ngogledd Lloegr ddoe. Ond nid mor ddrwg yma. Pawb yn sgubo dail yr Hydref oddi ar yr iard ddoe a heddiw am ei bod yn oerach. Bl 3 a 4 wedi casglu'r afalau oddi ar ein coeden 5 Kilo! Tarten wysnos nesa! Athro’r Ardd: Da iawn Cyfeillion y Gwanwyn. Rydych wedi bod yn brysur!

Ferryside V.C.P School: Roedd y tywydd wythnos hon yn heulog ac yn oer. Dim ond 4ml o law a nowsweithu oer.

Arkholme Primary School: We had a lot of rainfall this Thursday, Maisie and I really enjoyed collecting the data this week. Unfortunately Mr Bonwick's Plant pot got knocked over, not much sign of any growth. Professor Plant: I’m sorry to hear one of your pots was kicked over! I’m glad to hear that you are enjoying the project though.

Saint Anthony's Primary School: The temperature gradually decreased until Friday when it dropped sharply. Professor Plant: Gosh bulb buddies, a drop from 8 to -2 in temperature!

St Fergus' Primary School: It has been very windy, cold and stormy this week.

Darran Park Primary: We've lots and lots of rain. Today we had hail stones at lunch time. It feels very cold in the wind.

Sanquhar Primary School: Thursday night we had snow so Friday morning reading it had melted.

Stanford in the Vale Primary School: A wet week and very cold! They are saying snow flurries next week.

Pil Primary School: Rained a lot in Pyle this week.

Arkholme Primary School: This week we noticed that it was quite cold also there was not much rain fall ether.

Bursar Primary Academy: We had 130ml of rain on Monday, 124ml on Thursday. Lincolnshire has had a large amount of rain.

St Fergus' Primary School: The flower beds and pots look tidier but there are still more leaves to be cleared. It was a mix of weather this week with some rain at the beginning of the week and then got colder at the end of the week. The frost stayed most of the day today (Friday).

Ysgol Bro Pedr: What a beautiful end to the week. Much better than the damp miserable weather at the start.

Oldfleet Primary School: Warmer all week but lots of wet play times

Stoneferry Primary School: Another rain-filled week!

Georgetown Primary (Tredegar): There was snow on Wednesday night from about 7.30pm. When we got up on Thursday everything was white. It started to rain and the snow cleared.

Arkholme Primary School: We have noticed that on Monday there was a very high rainfall. We had 3 very frosty nights at the start of the week. We have really enjoyed taking the reading.

Aberdare Park Primary School: We had a fall of snow on overnight on Wednesday. This turned to sleet early Thursday morning and then rain.

Darran Park Primary: We had some snow on Wednesday evening. It was really cold.

Henllys CIW Primary: The temperature stayed fairly consistent and the rain was weird due to the fact that it was wet on Monday, getting dryer and dryer until Thursday when it rained really hard and then all the way back to zero.

Stanford in the Vale Primary School: What a week of heavy rain and we experienced the chill factor also - starting to get cold!

Ysgol Bro Pedr: A mixture of all weathers this week - snow, sunshine, rain, frost, hailstones, wind!!!

Hudson Road Primary School: It felt chilly this week and cold. On Friday it was very rainy and it is supposed to snow!

Bardney Primary School: Rain fall on Friday 8th was actually 23mm but no option from drop down box. Rounded to the nearest 10. Professor Plant: Well done Bulb Buddies, that’s exactly what you need to do. Keep up the good work

Clifton Primary School: This is the first year we have been involved in the bulb project and we have really enjoyed our first week! On Thursday/Friday, Hull had an awful lot of rain which made measuring the rainfall quite interesting. We're looking forward to seeing everyone's results.

Bryncoch CiW Primary School: We have rounded the rainfall to the nearest 10mm

Professor Plant: Well done Bulb Buddies, that’s exactly what you need to do. Keep up the good work

Dalbeattie Primary School: On one day there was lots of drizzle but the next rainfall reading did not show anything other than a few droplets. Presumably, during the 24 hour period between readings, some of the water had evaporated out of the rain gauge? ProfessorPlant: That’s right Bulb Buddies.

Darran Park Primary: We have noticed that the temperature is getting colder.

Stanford in the Vale Primary School: Hello its Riley. We have planted all our bulbs and have been observing the rainfall and temperature this week - hardly any rain and we have said it’s getting colder - goodbye and have a nice weekend - Regards Riley

Stoneferry Primary School: Massive amount of rainfall this week - bulbs have had a lot of water. Children loved inputting the data with the teacher.

New Abbey Primary School: We have had a very cold, frosty but bright later on start to the week. However, today has warmer but with non-stop rain all day!

Sylwadau cyffredinol:

Ysgol Gymraeg Dewi Sant (Llanelli): Helo Athro rydym yn mwynhau gofalu am y bylbiau. Diolch am anfon y bylbiau atom ni. Faint o ysgolion sy'n cymryd rhan? Pryd ydych chi'n credu bydd y bylbiau yn agor? Ni'n gyffrous iawn i weld y blodau! Athro’r Ardd: Helo Ysgol Gymraeg Dewi Sant, diolch am eich cyfraniad i’r prosiect. Mae 175 o ysgolion yn cymryd rhan yn yr ymholiad. Mae’n werth gwylio eich planhigion yn agos o hyn ymlaen, fel byddech yn gweld pryd maen nhw yn blodeuo.

Ysgol Gymraeg Caerffili: Plant wedi mwynhau cofnodi'r tywydd ac wedi cofio ei wneud pob dydd. Athro’r Ardd: Da iawn Cyfellion y Gwanwyn! Rwy'n falch o glywed eich bod yn mwynhau'r prosiect.

Our Lady of Peace Primary School: This week it was really cold but we went to the science centre on Thursday. We feel like scientists when we do this and send this to you. Professor Plant: Fantastic Our Lady of Peace Primary. You are super scientists, thank you for helping me with this experiment.

Ysgol Llwyn yr Eos: We measured the temperature and rainfall in the morning on Friday because we are going out this afternoon with our class to go carol singing in the community centre. Sorry that we haven't done it at the right time. Professor Plant: Thank you for entering your data Ysgol Llwyn yr Eos. I hope you enjoyed carol singing.

Fleet Wood Lane Primary School: It is hard to keep the rythm going after a couple of weeks. Professor Plant: Keep at Fleet Wood Lane Primary, you are doing a fantastic job. Your plants should be starting to grow soon!

St Fergus' Primary School: On Monday and Tuesday it was very frosty all day long. The rainfall was high on Wednesday and the temperature went up on Thursday. There was lots of leaves on the ground, tomorrow we will clear the leaves from the flower beds and pots. Professor Plant: Fantastic work Bulb Buddies.

Maesgwyn Special School: I enjoyed collecting the data this week. Professor Plant: I’m glad to hear you are enjoying the project Bulb Buddies.

Saint Anthony's Primary School: We forgot to do it on Wednesday and Thursday but we have set an alarm on Miss Harley's phone so we don't forget. Professor Plant: Good idea Bulb Buddies!

Our Lady of Peace Primary School: Sorry we sent our data late we couldn't log in to the computer because are teacher was not in class. Professor Plant: Thank you for entering your data Bulb Buddies, fantastic work.

Llanedeyrn Primary School: Thank you for sending us the bulbs. Professor Plant: You are welcome, thank you for taking part in the project.

Llanedeyrn Primary School: We are really enjoying this investigation. Professor Plant: I’m glad to hear you are enjoying the project Bulb Buddies.

Litchard Primary School: I'm enjoying the responsibility taking the temperature every day. Professor Plant: Thank you for taking part and I’m glad to hear you are enjoying the project.

High Cross Primary School: I what to see if professor plant is liking the data we’ve been sending. Professor Plant: Thank you very much for your data High Cross Primary. Fantastic work Bulb Buddies.

Ysgol San Sior: This was fun. Professor Plant: I’m glad to hear you are enjoying the project Bulb Buddies.

Maesgwyn Special School: We have had fun collecting our data this week. Professor Plant: I’m glad to hear you are enjoying the project Bulb Buddies.

St Fergus' Primary School: We have been recording our weather data at 2:30pm each day, we have noticed frost on some of the mornings but by the time 2:30pm comes it's gone and is warmer. We have had to clear some autumn leaves from our pots and flower bed. Professor Plant: Well done for looking after your flower beds Bulb Buddies. Is the frost still going before you take your weather readings? It’s still frosty in Cardiff this afternoon.

Llangan Primary School: What type of plant is professor Plant? Professor Plant: Hi Llangan Primary. You’ve planted Tenby daffodil and whitewell crocus bulbs. You’ve also planted some mystery bulbs! We’ll have to wait to see what these turn out to be. Any guesses?

Loreburn Primary School: Unfortunately our thermometer was stolen and one of our bulbs was dug up. The class are very sad about this. Professor Plant: I’m sorry to hear this Bulb Buddies. If you haven’t found a replacement thermometer I will send a new one. Keep up the good work Bulb Buddies.

Litchard Primary School: The thermometer mercury bit snapped. Professor Plant: Thank you for letting me know Bulb Buddies. If you haven’t found a replacement thermometer I will send you one.

High Cross Primary School: HI PROFESSOR PLANT. Professor Plant: Hi High Cross Primary. I hope that you are enjoying the project!

Laurieknowe Primary School: rain gauge broken over weekend - no rain data. Professor Plant: Thank you for letting me know Bulb Buddies. If you haven’t found a replacement I’ll send a new one to you.


Diolch Cyfeillion y Gwanwyn,

Athro'r Ardd a Bwlb Bychan

Our new role as marine curatorial assistants within the invertebrate biodiversity section of Amgueddfa Cymru has so far not disappointed in offering insights into the tremendous diversity of life in our seas. After the first ten weeks of working to curate and conserve a large set of marine monitoring collections donated to the museum by Natural Resources Wales, we’ve already managed to log over 5,000 records of predominately marine invertebrates from around the welsh coast. These records have included starfish, polychaete worms, bryozoans, molluscs and anemones, to name only a few. Monitoring collections are essential for research in understanding the complexity of the natural world and diversity at many levels. To understand evolution, genetics and the morphological variation of species for example, specimens from many years are often needed, something which is not usually possible with live animals. These voucher specimens also hold valuable information about when and where species live and can be used for verification when the identification of a species is in doubt. An important contemporary issue is that specimens held in collections offer a wealth of baseline information which can be used as a comparison against current observations. This is essential when looking at how climatic changes are impacting marine life. 

 

For research to happen, specimens must be properly cared for, with their information being easily accessible. Our role can be predominately split into two parts: office and laboratory work. Work in the office encompasses everything from sorting species vials into classification groups, the logging of each vial from analogue to digital formats into a database, where locality information (e.g. sediment type and depth) and method of collection is inputted, to printing new labels for the vials, each with a unique reference number. In the laboratory, the number of specimens in each vial must be counted to accurately record species abundance, vials are then topped up with ethanol, labelled and rehoused into larger jars according to their classification groups. This method of double tubing vials into larger containers acts as not only an accessible way for a particular species to be found, but also as a preventative to stop specimens drying out. These new specimens will be added to an already impressive collection of marine invertebrates at the museum, with over 750,000 specimens. Hopefully, they will be used for generations to come to compare what we know today about the unknowns of the future.