Amgueddfa Blog: Amgueddfeydd, Arddangosfeydd a Digwyddiadau

Arddangosfa Gobaith Amgueddfa Wlân Cymru – Dyddiad Lansio! 

Pleser yw cyhoeddi y bydd Arddangosfa Gobaith yn agor i'r cyhoedd yn Amgueddfa Wlân Cymru ar 2 Hydref 2021 ac ar agor tan ganol Ionawr 2022. Bydd yr agoriad yn rhan o Ddigwyddiad Dathlu Gwlân digidol Amgueddfa Cymru a gynhelir ar 2-3 Hydref. Mae rhagor o wybodaeth am y digwyddiad cliciwch yma Dathlu Gwlân | National Museum Wales (amgueddfa.cymru) 

Bydd yr arddangosfa hefyd i'w gweld yn Amgueddfa Genedlaethol y Glannau yn Abertawe rhwng Gorffennaf a Hydref 2022. 

Diolch i bawb a gyfrannodd at greu'r sgwariau lliw enfys. Diwedd mis Mawrth 2021 oedd y dyddiad cau ar gyfer derbyn cyfraniadau. Ers yr alwad gyntaf am sgwariau ym mis Ebrill 2020 ar ddechrau'r cyfnod clo cenedlaethol cyntaf, rydym wedi derbyn bron i 2,000 o sgwariau! Roedd cyfranwyr yn defnyddio’r deunyddiau oedd ar gael iddyn nhw ar y pryd, megis gwlân neu edau acrylig i greu sgwariau wedi’u gwau neu grosio, ac mae'r ymateb wedi bod yn anhygoel!  

Rhannodd elusen Crisis (De Cymru), sy'n cefnogi pobl ddigartref, wybodaeth am yr Arddangosfa Gobaith ar eu tudalen Facebook, a chreu pecynnau o wlân a chyfarwyddiadau ar gyfer defnyddwyr eu gwasanaethau i’w hannog i gyfrannu. Roedd Arddangosfa Gobaith yn elfen bwysig o Wythnos Addysg Oedolion 2020, a chyhoeddwyd dau fideo o Non Mitchell, Crefftwraig yn Amgueddfa Wlân Cymru yn dangos sut i ffeltio a gwehyddu sgwâr. Crëwyd collage o ffotograffau yn cofnodi’r arddangosfa yn rhan o Broject Celf Cysylltu â Charedigrwydd, a gynhelir mewn partneriaeth ag Ymgyrch Cysylltu â Charedigrwydd a Chymdeithas Gwasanaethau Gwirfoddol Sir Gâr i gofnodi caredigrwydd a chefnogaeth cymunedol yn ystod y pandemig. 

Ni ellid fod wedi rhagweld unrhyw agwedd o'r flwyddyn ddiwethaf ac mae pob un ohonom ni wedi gorfod addasu i newidiadau enfawr. Er mai creu un blanced enfys enfawr o’r sgwariau oedd ein cynllun gwreiddiol, rydym wedi penderfynu creu sawl blanced yn lle hynny. Roedden ni wedi derbyn nifer anhygoel o sgwariau ac yn sgil cyfyngiadau Covid-19 doedd dim modd i wirfoddolwyr gwrdd yn Amgueddfa Wlân Cymru. Bu Gwirfoddolwyr Amgueddfa Wlân Cymru a staff Amgueddfa Cymru felly yn uno'r sgwariau gartref i greu blancedi unigryw hardd. Wedi'r Arddangosfa, y bwriad o hyd yw rhoi'r blancedi i elusennau i'w defnyddio fel y maen nhw eisiau, boed fel blancedi neu fel darnau o waith celf. Mae mwy o flancedi yn golygu mwy o hyblygrwydd wrth arddangos, ac mae gennym gynlluniau cyffrous ar y gweill! 

Tra bod ein gwirfoddolwyr a'n staff gwych yn brysur yn gweithio ar greu'r blancedi, rydym wedi bod yn gweithio ar ran arall o'r project hefyd. Dros y flwyddyn ddiwethaf, rydym wedi derbyn cymaint o sgwariau hardd ac amrywiol o bob cwr o’r wlad ac mae wedi bod yn hyfryd clywed gan sawl person bod creu’r sgwariau wedi eu helpu yn ystod y cyfnod digynsail a heriol hwn. Oherwydd hyn, rydym wedi penderfynu cofnodi profiadau rhai cyfranwyr o gymryd rhan yn y project. Bydd y fideo ‘Straeon tu ôl i’r Sgwariau’ yn fideo dehongli byr yn yr arddangosfa ac ar-lein, yn cofnodi teimladau'r bobl a gyfrannodd at y project. 

Diolch i ddisgyblion Ysgol Penboyr yn Dre-fach Felindre sydd wedi creu gwaith celf ôl llaw enfys prydferth a gaiff ei arddangos yn yr arddangosfa hefyd. 

Mae’r enfys yn cael ei defnyddio'n aml fel symbol o heddwch a gobaith, ac yn aml yn ymddangos pan fo'r haul yn tywynnu yn dilyn glaw trwm. Maen nhw'n ein hatgoffa ni y daw eto haul ar fryn wedi cyfnodau anodd. Nod yr arddangosfa yw adlewyrchu ysbryd, gobaith a chymuned yn ystod y cyfnod heriol hwn. Bydd yr arddangosfa yn brofiad i ymgolli ynddo, yn gwtsh symbolaidd o’r caredigrwydd a'r cariad sydd ym mhob pwyth, i ymgorffori ein gobaith ni oll. 

Bydd tudalen ar wefan Amgueddfa Cymru yn rhan o'r arddangosfa fydd yn cynnwys, ymysg pethau eraill, fideo ‘Straeon tu ôl i’r Sgwariau’ Arddangosfa Gobaith, fideo time-lapse o'r arddangosfa, a thaith o gwmpas yr arddangosfa ei hun hefyd. 

Edrychwn ymlaen at eich croesawu i’r arddangosfa yn fuan iawn. Yn y cyfamser, dyma fideo byr am Arddangosfa Gobaith, yn cofnodi rhai o'r ffotograffau sydd wedi'u tynnu ers i'r project lansio. 

Cadwch lygad ar ein tudalennau ar y cyfryngau cymdeithasol am yr wybodaeth ddiweddaraf. 

Diolch i The Ashley Family Foundation a Sefydliad Cymunedol Cymru am gefnogi'r project hwn. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pitch Black: a recap and review

Pitch Black was a weekly festival that occurred over a month in association with the National Museum Wales. It was a showcase and celebration of Black artists and their work. I attended these sessions, and this blog post is a recap and personal review.

Education is a cornerstone of life with aspects of this coming not only from schools but also museums and other institutes which play a very important role. Heritage is a part of the education in which museums teach and Pitch Black aimed to showcase this in a more unusual and interactive way.

How ‘great’ is Britain?

Our education system fails us all. Schools do not clearly explain the atrocities that led to the UK we know today – one built off the back of slavery and colonisation. Built in prejudice which stems from colonialism perpetuates myths of Britain’s ‘greatness’, to the expense of hearing the histories and experiences of Black and non-Black people of colour. Many white people experience some degree of discomfort when Black people challenge this status quo, are these two experiences connected?

Pitch Black, in my opinion, was a platform to allow Black artists to express themselves and force the audience to question certain aspects of our collective past. It is meant to make us see the Black narratives and experiences in what we perceive as mostly white history.  Most people want to ignore and hide away from the past, but this festival is taking place to showcase to everyone that Black artists are taking a stand and will not be silenced.

A range of beautifully dynamic and thought-provoking pieces were completed over the four weeks of the Pitch Black showcase, ranging from a cine-poem to dance and visual arts pieces. Each piece had a distinctive voice and message that the artists was trying to purvey, and this came across clearly and very visibly. The artists Q and As also allowed the audience to be further involved with the process and history of the performances.

The Black art and artefacts tours that investigated the museum’s collections, highlighting previously neglected stories, was also highly eye opening as it showed just how two dimensional complex museum collections have been curated and viewed. Even though I feel I had quite a good education about Black History, the slave trade and issues of colonialism. I had very little knowledge of to the deeper meanings behind the paintings and artefacts that were explained and described in the tours. Education in the United Kingdom does not prepare you for the harrowing sides of British history and culture. From David Hockney to Henri Gaudier- Brzeska the art world has many Black influences which are never discussed and are basically hidden from public consumption. Is this simply the United Kingdom’s way of systematically ignoring the country's past? Education is key and through art, education is what the viewer receives.

This education needs to be delivered in the right way - representing the viewpoints of those it affects the most. Not watered down, not worrying about people's reactions, but true, raw and honest. The artists, their families and ancestors had to go through so much to be where they are today and yet many of the workshops and pieces still had one central message: Hope.

Pitch Black showcased that while colonialism and slavery are essentially white heritage – a legacy of what Britain and other colonial forces did, the heritage and legacy of Black communities is resilience;  the will to keep fighting, to celebrate their strength and beauty and retain Hope. Pitch Black did not dwell on the negatives. Yes, these artists could have focused on this aspect of their journeys, but the beauty was more prevalent. Of course, discrimination and racism was presented to the viewers but also ideas of home and family, which all came across as a beacon of positivity.

The platform of Pitch Black has allowed Black artists to showcase their stories and work. Having many voices from many differing backgrounds allows for a richer life experience. Every aspect of everyone’s lives can benefit from a multicultural input and art, heritage and culture are no different. The UK is a melting pot for different nationalities and races, this comes with difficult historical legacies and everyday challenges that we need to work together to acknowledge, challenge and overcome.  We need to recognise how uneducated many of us really are on Black history and experiences, we need to challenge our own prejudices and deepen our insight and capacity for empathy – art and in particular the Pitch Black showcase can provide new experiences and insights, help us to broaden our horizons.

As for the individual pieces I took something different away from each one. June Campbell – Davies’ piece made me very emotional. The story that was told was so honest and heartbreaking. It was very contemporary, and the message was subtle but so much history was packed into the short performance. With the camera panning to some of the portraits surrounding the room I got a real sense that this performance in this room was reclaiming space that had for too long been denied to Black people and their stories. This piece being called ‘Sometimes we are Invisible’ was a very apt name as when the performance was over the materials and chairs which were used were all that was left. The complete removal of June from the scene made the set even more atmospheric. There was also a voice over to the piece which had snippets about Britain from the past. The whole performance was a little unnerving as you never knew what exactly was going to happen next. It was so well presented and really resonated with me and made me think of so much, not just whilst watching but also after. This piece really left you asking questions and rethinking everything.

Gabin Kongolo had his work focused on in week two. His cine poem entitled ‘Ndáko’ which means ‘Home’ in Lingala focused on the journey of refugees from the Democratic Republic of Congo to Wales. Even though the start was more down beaten as the piece went on it became more and more hopeful. The issues were shared it in such a personal way. Also, the mix of Lingala and English tied the piece to the artist's roots, and I felt like this gave a better insight to the culture and made the piece even more hard hitting. Even the music throughout mirrors the happiness of the family. What I loved about this piece is the joy you can see on the families faces and the stories that Kongolo told in the artists Q and A, they were so lovely, and I am sure made the whole audience think of home.

‘The ocean is always looking for a way into your boat’ by Omikemi puts you on edge from the minute it starts. The sounds of waves and percussion made you worried for the characters involved. This spoken poem highlights the idea of loss and the struggles in life, but also how you are able to dream beyond this and find yourself and others. I personally felt that the whole piece was quite organic and natural. I went away from watching the video feeling slightly saddened but understanding that the artist was looking for an improved future. I love the root of this piece as it is an interesting starting point, looking from a care background but I feel that this adds to the effect of the piece on the viewer but also with links to the LGBTQIA+ and disabled communities there are many accessible aspects for many different groups of people.

For the final week Yvonne Connikie was in the spotlight with her piece entitled ‘A time for new dreams’ which focused on the Windrush generation in South Wales. The inclusion of actors of multiple ages and genders gave this piece a unique twist as it tried to give some insight to a whole community and made the piece interesting to watch. From the little child to the elder individuals I felt many different emotions as you reacted differently to every person included in the piece. The idea of dreams is so open, and it really allows the viewers to see the people better and dreams are so personal and sharing them feels almost like you are now holding a secret with these people. The changing of season and backgrounds which can be seen in the video gave you a real sense of time. Dreams are not granted overnight but rather dreams are the future. I think the biggest take away with Connikie’s work for me was the sense of peace.

Overall, Pitch Black was an eye-opening experience for me. It perfectly highlighted the duality of being Black in Wales and was a highly accessible way of learning more about Black lives and art. For more information on the showcase please go to: https://museum.wales/whatson/digital/11289/Lates-PITCH-BLACK/ 

This blog was written by one of our Amgueddfa Cymru Producers. Youthled projects across the museum are part of the Hands on Heritage initiative, made possible by the National Lottery Heritage Fund's Kick the Dust Grant.

To see more of Pitch Black and other projects we run, follow us on Instagram @bloedd_ac https://www.instagram.com/bloedd_ac/ and check out our website to find out more about how young people can get involved Young people | National Museum Wales 

Thanks to The Fund and all our National Lottery Players - keeping our fingers crossed for you! 

Each Thursday evening in May, Amgueddfa Cymru - National Museum Wales are hosting Lates: PITCH BLACK, an online festival of art, film, and music that aims to celebrate Blackness.

In this blog, June Campbell-Davies tells us more about what to expect from her commissioned performance piece, titled 'Sometimes We're Invisible' that will be featured in the first evening of Lates: PITCH BLACK on 6 May 2021.

For more information on Lates: PITCH BLACK and to purchase a ticket from just £6 per event, click here.

 

The source of my piece came from an experimental work I created a few years ago around exploring the presence of black Victorians, its was a solo I performed using the Movement style that lends itself to Japanese Butoh, where the movements are extremely controlled [slow motion] or intensified [changes in dynamics], allowing the performer to internalize, transform momentarily through this luminal process. And so from the start, I decided that whatever movement material I created, I would use this form of movement Style throughout the piece. Which is a challenge for dancer and audiences alike to stay connected and absorbed.

The Space in Gallery 4 is an open area giving space & light I envisaged my work centered between the organ and the large oil painting.  So when in March 2021 I was able to begin rehearsals in the Museum, I wasn’t sure how I was going to present my solo-My movements alone couldn’t sum up what I had unearthed, I turned my focus to selecting photos for the projector in the hope that what I couldn’t convey in movement the images would help to cement the subject matter.

I knew then that I didn’t want to appear already dressed in Victorian dress, but was drawn to the African print fabric I wanted to start there and explore that journey, entering and exiting the space. Connecting to the rope on the floor spread out into 5 or 6 branches signifying family lineage or tribe. Once that was established I felt something was need even before that, maybe representing a kind of sculptural, spiritual mythical

Entity, Which came out of the silver representing crossing water, refined metals.  The West African deity Yemoja in Yoruba culture, originates from Nigerian folkloric religion and is associated with water, purity, fertility the giver of life and death, which has traveled with those from captivity to the Caribbean, Brazil, Cuba & Southern states of American. Their belief system clashing & mixing with Christianity. Silver being a kind of refining metal symbolically connects with me in terms of what Africans & my Ancestors had to go through over 400 years of Slavery.

But it's never clear cut the stain runs deep for those of us who are of mixed heritage, my father's family tree reveals that his grandparents and great grandparents on his father's side were Scottish and French plantation owners of Grenada. Those that remained in Grenada after the abolition of slavery were disinherited if they married outside their race, and so Religion played an important part in trying to convert enslaved people to Christianity and trying to keep the races apart. The wealth generated, helped to build  Churches and Cathedrals, the Stately homes and mansions in Britain all through cultivating & processing Sugar Cane.

So later in the choreography the book I hold up is woven in red and reads ‘ Objects of Desire’ and symbolically serves as a bible, pushing down and suffocating all involved in this form of human trafficking, chained and packed close like sardines. Branded separated given new names. forced to give up their religious practices and take up Christianity. 

So the piece begins by shedding off one layer revealing another and putting on garments in a kind of ritualistic journey. So as the rehearsal process developed I began to collect items that may be useful to experiment with.  At first, I only had a notebook, music system, a blanket to sit on the floor to warm up, improvising with short movement sequences.  

In the next sessions I brought in more props like rope and used it to outline the space, to create a right angle. Another piece of rope was placed on the floor to use as an umbilical cord. And decided that this rope was where I would explore ‘the Struggle’ giving birth, the enslavement, the suffering, the torture. All in the name of sugar

The following session, I needed to find another stimulus to help generate more material,  there were a few chairs in the space and so I used these just to play with improvisation, it was not my plan to have the chairs in the piece but eventually they became symbolic elements and helped to define the space, and restrict the performance area, helping me to drive the narrative forward. The chairs became landmarks, continents, and seats of power as I moved around them. I explored my solo dance within the triangle [Trans- Atlantic] sometimes with the dress and other times without, I couldn’t decide yet until near the filming date. By then sections seemed to organically drop into place. The dressing and undressing became part of the ritual and transformation.

During the early periods of rehearsals, I used pre-recorded music to help create atmosphere & develop short choreographic moments. I knew for the actual performance I wanted a soundscape that had voice, text & natural elements. So I contacted my daughter.

The Soundscape was created by  Ffion Campbell-Davies, a Welsh multidisciplinary artist based in London.  Our conversations were through email for this project, both of us busy with other jobs we didn’t really need to communicate at long lengths because we share similar interests and we have worked together on several projects so there is an understanding and respect for each other's practice. Ffion also gave me choreographic notes and directions which was crucial at this stage. The Soundscape really helped to bring the entire piece to life adding another layer and giving the body of work context, alongside projected images. Text punctuated like bullet points from Professor Sir Hilary Beckles's speech on Reparations stung the air like deadly darts.

Now in Victorian dress, I leave the Space, An imprint from the past. The wheels of fate keep turning & turning. I exit.

Lates: PITCH BLACK is presented in partnership with Artes Mundi.

Y penwythnos hwn bydd ein Curaduron yn agor drysau ar-lein i'n casgliadau meteoryn a chreigiau gofod hynod ddiddorol. Ymunwch â nhw ddydd Sadwrn a dydd Sul am teithiau rhad ac am ddim y tu ôl i'r llenni, wedi'u ffrydio ar wefan Amgueddfa Cymru, fel rhan o'n Penwythnos Serydda Syfrdanol. Yna ddydd Sul, bydd seryddwyr arbenigol yn ymuno â’n curaduron i ateb eich cwestiynau mewn digwyddiad byw. Am fanylion pellach ac i archebu lle, gwelwch: Serydda Syfrdanol.

Dyma Andrew Haycock, Curadur Mwynoleg a Gwyddorau Petroleg Naturiol yn cynnig blas o’r penwythnos ac yn rhannu’r cefndir ar un o'n trysorau gofod, craig o'r blaned Mawrth.

Mae 77 meteoryn yng nghasgliad Amgueddfa Cymru, a ddarganfuwyd mewn ardaloedd ledled y Byd. Mae rhai o'r rhain yn cael eu harddangos yn barhaol yn ein Oriel Esblygiad Cymru. Maent yn cynnwys gwibfaen haearn 260kg, a ddisgynnodd yn Namibia, Affrica; a thafell o feteoryn caregog a ddisgynnodd yn Beddgelert ym 1949. Mae'r gwibfaen hwn yn un o ddim ond dau feteoryn o Gymru.

Mae'r mwyafrif helaeth o feteorynnau yn y casgliad yn cael eu cadw mewn storfa sydd a hinsawdd wedi ei reoli i atal dadfeilio, ond fe'u defnyddir yn aml ar gyfer ein digwyddiadau arbennig ar thema’r Gofod a’n gweithgareddau addysgiadol. Mae gan bob sbesimen - waeth pa mor fach neu fawr, weledol syfrdanol neu ddibwys ei olwg - stori ddiddorol i'w hadrodd. Un sbesimen anhynod ei olwg yw meteoryn shergottite caregog a gasglwyd yn Libya ym 1998.

Shergotte yw’r meteoryn yma o’r blaned Mawrth (NMW 2010.17G.R.26). Er bod wyneb y blaned Mawrth yn edrych yn goch, llwyd yw’r creigiau sydd gennym, dim ond llwch wyneb y blaned sy'n rhoi’r lliw oren iddo.

Mae tua 95% o ddarganfyddiadau meteorynau yn cael eu graddio fel ‘caregog’, ac yn cynnwys mwynau sy’n gyffredin i’r Ddaear yn bennaf, ac mae’r mwyafrif o rhain (99.8%) tua 4,560 miliwn o flynyddoedd oed, ac yn tarddu o’r Llain Asteroid rhwng y blaned Mawrth a Iau. Mae hynny’n hen iawn, a gellid maddau i arsylwr achlysurol feddwl mai dim ond meteoryn caregog arall oedd y gwibfaen shergottite hwn, ond mewn gwirionedd mae'n eithaf arbennig, darn ydyw o'r blaned Mawrth.

O'r 65,000 neu fwy o feteorynnau, a gasglwyd, a archwiliwyd ac a enwyd, dim ond 292 sy'n cael eu hystyried i darddu o'r blaned Mawrth. Gellir eu dosbarthu fel tri math gwahanol o graig, pob un yn darddiad igneaidd (wedi'i ffurfio o fagma neu lafa). Maent yn llawer iau na'r gwibfeini o'r gwregys Asteroid, ac fe'u ffurfiwyd gan weithgaredd folcanig ar blaned Mawrth rhwng 165 a 1,340 miliwn o flynyddoedd yn ôl. Dim ond un gwibfaenu hyn, a ddarganfuwyd ym Mryniau Allen yn Antarctica, y credir ei fod oddeutu 4,500 miliwn o flynyddoedd oed, ac o gramen gychwynnol Mawrth pan ffurfiwyd y blaned.

Mae’r planed Mawrth wedi bod yn y newyddion lawer yn ddiweddar (Chwefror 2021), gyda glaniad crwydrwr Perseverance NASA. Prif waith y crwydrwr yw chwilio am arwyddion o fywyd hynafol a chasglu samplau o graig a regolith (craig a phridd wedi malu) er mwyn eu dychwelyd i'r Ddaear o bosib.

Liawns y crwydrwr Perserverance i'r blaned Mawrth, 30 Gorffennaf 2020

Cyn glanio’r crwydrwr Perseverance, danfonwyd pedwar crwydryn arall yn llwyddiannus i’r blaned Mawrth gan anfon data gwerthfawr yn ôl at wyddonwyr ar y Ddaear; Sojourner (1997), Spirit and Opportunity (2004); a Curiosity (2012). Roedd y llong ofod gyntaf i lanio'n llwyddiannus ar y blaned yn rhan o genadaethau Viking 1 a Viking 2 (Cylchlwybrwr a Glaniwr) a gyrhaeddodd y blaned Mawrth ym 1976.

Felly, sut mae gwyddonwyr yn gwybod bod y gwibfeini hyn o'r blaned Mawrth? Trwy astudio cyfansoddiad meteorynnau tebyg i'r un hwn, a'i gymharu â data a anfonwyd yn ôl gan long ofod ar y blaned Mawrth. Canfuwyd bod gan y meteorynnau gyfansoddiadau elfennol ac isotopig tebyg iawn i rai creigiau o Fawrth. Mae'r grŵp Shergottite o feteorynnau o’r blaned Mawrth yn debyg iawn i greigiau basalt a geir ar y Ddaear, ond mae'r isotopau ocsigen yn wahanol i rai creigiau'r Ddaear.

Darparwyd tystiolaeth derfynol ar gyfer tarddiad o’r blaned Mawrth ym 1983, pan ddadansoddwyd swigod bach o nwy wedi'u amrwydo y tu mewn i ddarnau gwydrog o feteoryn shergottite o Antarctica. Roedd y nwyon yma’n cyd-fynd yn berffaith â llofnod awyrgylch Mawrth fel yr adroddwyd gan lanwyr Viking 1 a 2 NASA ym 1976.

Nid oes unrhyw ofodwyr wedi bod i'r blaned Mawrth, ac nid oes unrhyw ddeunydd o'r blaned Mawrth wedi'i anfon yn ôl i'r Ddaear hyd yn hyn. Felly sut gyrhaeddodd craig o'r blaned Mawrth i'r Ddaear? Yr unig fecanwaith hysbys i daflu craig o'r blaned Mawrth yw digwyddiad gwibfaen enfawr. Byddai'r hyn wedi taro’r blaned Mawrth gyda digon o rym i daflu malurion allan i'r Gofod, i ffwrdd o dynfa disgyrchiant y blaned, sy'n llawer llai nag effaith y Ddaear. Ar ryw adeg cafodd y gwibfeini eu gwyro o'u chwylgylch a'u tynnu i mewn i faes disgyrchiant y Ddaear. Yna syrthiodd peth o'r malurion hyn i'r Ddaear fel gwibfeini.

Mae'r crater 3-miliwn-mlwydd-oed Mojave, yn 58.5 km mewn diamedr. Hwn yw’r crater ieuengaf o'i faint ar y blaned, ac wedi'i nodi fel ffynhonnell bosibl i'r mwyafrif o feteorynnau o’r blaned Mawrth.

Yn wahanol i'r Lleuad, o ran y blaned Mawrth, nid oes gan wyddonwyr greigiau a gasglwyd gan ofodwr i'w hastudio. Ond mae ganddyn nhw'r peth gorau nesaf, a’r meteorynnau yma o’r blaned Mawrth ydyn nhw.

 

 

Ydych chi wedi gweld lluniau o bêl tân y feteoryn a deithiodd trwy ein hatmosffer ar 28 Chwefror? Mae ein tîm wedi bod yn gweithio i helpu gwyddonwyr i ddod o hyd i’r man y glaniodd oflaen cartref ger Caerloyw! Er 2019, mae Amgueddfa Cymru wedi bod yn rhan o rwydwaith SCAMP (System of Asteroid and Meteorite Paths) y DU, rhan o Gynghrair Pêl Dân y DU sy'n canfod, yn olrhain ac yn helpu i ddod o hyd i gwympiadau meteor. Dyma Jana Horak, ein Pennaeth Mwynoleg a Phetroleg, yn esbonio sut, ac yn eich gwahodd i ymuno â hi a rhai o'i chydweithwyr curadurol ar gyfer taith ar-lein y tu ôl i'r llenni o'n casgliad meteoryn yn ystod ein penwythnos Serydda Syfrdanol ar 20-21 Mawrth.

Bob blwyddyn mae curaduron yn yr Amgueddfa yn archwilio nifer o samplau o feteorynnau posib y mae'r cyhoedd yn eu darganfod. Mae gwyddonwyr yn amcangyfrif bod tua 44,000 cilogram o graig yn cwympo o'r gofod ac yn glanio ar y Ddaear bob dydd, gall hyn swnio'n faint mawr, ond mae’n cyfateb i giwb dim ond 2.3 metr ar draws. Yn y DU yn unig, amcangyfrifir bod 10-20 meteoryn y flwyddyn yn cyrraedd y ddaear, er i’r un olaf i'w ddarganfod yn Swydd Caergrawnt syrthio yn 1991. Yng Nghymru, dim ond dau feteoryn sydd wedi'u casglu hyd yma, gan fod y ddau wedi cwympo'n agos (neu trwy!) drigfan ddynol, y ddau yng Ngogledd Cymru. Edrychwch ar ein tudalennau Mwnyddiaeth Cymru i gael mwy o wybodaeth.

Ond os na welwn feteoryn yn cwympo, sut ydyn ni'n gwybod ble i chwilio amdanyn nhw? Mewn rhanbarthau cras, fel Anialwch y Sahara, mae haen allanol dywyll gwibfaen yn cyferbynnu ag arwyneb anialwch caregog gwelw, gan wneud y gwibfaen yn gymharol hawdd i'w weld. Yng Nghymru, fodd bynnag, mae ein hinsawdd dymherus yn cynhyrchu gorchudd pridd a llystyfiant datblygedig, felly mae'n hawdd colli carreg sy'n cwympo.

Camera SCAMP ar Do’r Amgueddfa yng Nghaerdydd, sy'n cofnodi gweithgaredd peli tân. Fe recordiodd belen dân Caerloyw (28ain Chwefror 2021) ac mae wedi cyfrannu at helpu i ddod o hyd i samplau.

Pan fydd craig ofod yn teithio tuag at y Ddaear, wedi’i thynnu gan ddisgyrchiant y Ddaear, mae llewyrch y bêl dân neu’r ‘seren wib’ yn ein rhybuddio am y tresmaswr hwn. Os gallwn gofnodi cyfeiriad (neu lwybr) y bêl dân, efallai y byddwn yn gallu nodi lle mae'r meteoryn yn cwympo. Ers 2019, mae Amgueddfa Cymru wedi bod yn rhan o rwydwaith SCAMP (https://www.ukfall.org.uk/) sy'n gwneud yn union hynny. Mae camera arbennig ar do Amgueddfa Genedlaethol Caerdydd, yn cofnodi unrhyw belen dân sy'n pasio. O'r data hwn gellir pennu cyfradd a chyfeiriad teithio, a thrwy gyfuno gwybodaeth o gamerâu eraill y DU, gallant gyfrifo'r lleoliad lle mae'r gwibfaen yn taro'r ddaear.

Ers i’r camera gael ei osod, rydym wedi recordio sawl pelen dân, ond dim ond dau o rhain arweinoodd at gwymp meteoryn. Ystyriwyd bod y cyntaf, ger Salisbury ym mis Tachwedd 2020, yn rhy fach i geisio’i ddarganfod, ond bydd yr un mwy diweddar ger Caerloyw (28ain Chwefror 2021) yn brawf o'r system, gan yr amcangyfrifir ei fod yn cynnwys darn maint oren. Pe byddech chi'n dod ar draws meteoryn sydd wedi cwympo'n ddiweddar, mae'n well ei lapio mewn rhywfaint o ffoil alwminiwm glân neu ei roi mewn bag heb ei drafod. Mae'n bwysig iawn peidio â'i brofi â magnet oherwydd gallai hyn ddinistrio gwybodaeth werthfawr. Gallwch gysylltu â ni yma yn yr Amgueddfa i gadarnhau unrhyw beth a ddarganfyddwch.

Sampl o feteoryn Chelyabinsk a ddisgynnodd yn y Ffederasiwn Rwseg ym mis Chwefror 2013.

 

Felly sut allwch chi wybod os ydych wedi dod o hyd i feteoryn, heb ei weld yn syrthio? Er y gall gwead mewnol meteorynnau amrywio, y peth mwyaf nodweddiadol ohonynt yw cramen wedi’i doddi. Dyma'r haen allanol dywyll, ychydig filimetrau o drwch, a gynhyrchir trwy ffrithiant yn toddi‘r graig wrth iddi wyro trwy'r awyrgylch. Pan fydd hi'n boeth ac yn teithio'n gyflym, mae'r haen doddi yn cael ei dynnu i ffwrdd, gan leihau maint y graig, a llyfnhau ei amlinell. Wrth iddo arafu, oeri a stopio disgleirio mae'r haen doddi yn oeri ac yn solidoli, i gynhyrchu’r wyneb allanol tywyll a llyfn nodweddiadol, y gall cyfres o graciau bach ei groesi. Mae gan y gwibfaen Chelyabinsk a ddisgynnodd yng ngorllewin Siberia, ym mis Chwefror 2013, gramen doddi ffres a datblygedig iawn.

Y sbesimenau mwyaf cyffredin a welwn a allai gael eu drysu â meteorau yw; hematite, yn enwedig pan fod ganddo ffurf llyfn swmpus, modwlau marcasite o Sialc de Lloegr, a samplau o slag, cynnyrch o orffennol diwydiannol Cymru ’. Yn gyffredin mae gan Slag geudodau swigen nwy crwn ar yr wyneb, rhywbeth sy'n anghyffredin neu'n absennol o gramennau meteoryn.

Os credwch eich bod wedi dod o hyd i feteoryn, cysylltwch ag Adran y Gwyddorau Naturiol.

Serydda Syfrdanol 20 - 21 Mawrth 2021

Gwybodaeth lawn am ein penwythnos o Serydda Syfrdanol yma