Tanwydd ar gyfer teithio i'r Antarctig: Cwmni Tanwydd Patent y Goron, Caerdydd

Jennifer Protheroe-Jones

Bloc o Danwydd Patent y Goron

Bloc o Danwydd Patent y Goron

Teithiau arwrol i gyfandir yr Antarctig

Cafwyd sawl taith arwrol i gyfandir yr Antarctig tua dechrau'r ugeinfed ganrif. Tanwydd Patent y Goron o'r De oedd y tanwydd a ddewiswyd ar gyfer yr allteithiau hyn i'r Antarctig.

Tanwydd Patent y Goron

Yn ogystal â derbyn 100 tunnell o lo stêm gan gwmnïau glo'r De, cafodd Alldaith Brydeinig Capten Scott i'r Antarctig 300 tunnell o flociau tanwydd gan Gwmni Tanwydd Patent y Goron Caerdydd. Diolch i hyn a'r nawdd arall a gafwyd o Gaerdydd a'r De, penderfynodd Scott ddynodi Caerdydd yn borthladd cartref ei long, y Terra Nova. Anfonodd y Terra Nova i lwytho tanwydd yng Nghaerdydd yn hytrach na'i anfon ar y trên i Lundain.

Roedd gwaith Tanwydd Patent y Goron ger camlas Morgannwg yn y Maendy. Roedd yn un o nifer ar hyd y gamlas, a diolch i'w cyfraniad nhw a chyfraniad nifer o weithfeydd eraill mewn porthladdoedd eraill yn y De, roedd y rhanbarth hwn yn cynhyrchu mwy o danwydd patent nag unman arall yn y byd. Cafodd y rhan fwyaf o'r tanwydd patent ei allforio, ac roedd Ffrainc yn un o'r prif gwsmeriaid.

Scott yn canmol llwyddiant y tanwydd patent

Er mwyn gwneud y tanwydd roedd rhaid cymysgu a chynhesu glo mân wastraff a phyg, gweddillion tar glo distyll, a chywasgu'r cymysgedd mewn mowldiau. Cynhyrchwyd blociau yn amrywio o 7 pwys i 56 pwys. Blociau 28 pwys oedd y rhai mwyaf cyffredin — a dyna'r rhai a ddefnyddiwyd ar gyfer alldaith Scott. Roedd modd pentyrru'r blociau yn rhwydd ac nid oeddynt angen cymaint o le â glo.

Pan gyrhaeddodd yr anturwyr eu prif wersyll yn Cape Evans ar Ynys Ross yn yr Antarctig, defnyddiwyd y blociau tanwydd i adeiladu wal gefn y stablau a godwyd ar gyfer merlod yr alldaith.

Teithiau cynharach

Ym 1901 derbyniodd llong y Discovery a ddefnyddiodd Capten Scott ar ei alldaith gyntaf i'r Antarctig 200 tunnell o Danwydd Patent yng Nghaerdydd. Roedd yr Aurora, llong Alldaith Awstralasia i'r Antarctig (1911-14) hefyd yng Nghaerdydd i dderbyn Tanwydd Patent y Goron ar 4 Awst 1911 cyn hwylio i Awstralia a'r Antarctig.

sylw (20)

Nid yw sylwadau ar gael ar hyn o bryd. Ymddiheuriadau am yr anghyfleustra.
3 Mawrth 2022, 19:07
we have just found a block in West Yorkshire near the river calder and the canal system.
there has been flooding recently and it has washed away a lot of the plant growth and exposed the block.
20 Chwefror 2022, 12:38
I have just seen from the 1921 census that my Uncle William Henry Ursell worked for the Star Fuel Company Blackweir and it was interesting to have read your article. Thank You.
28 Mehefin 2021, 10:56
Hello from Greece.
I am a University student at the department of conservation of antiquities and work of arts. I am currently doing my thesis which is about blocks of coals which are found in a shipwreck near dodekanisa. Only Crown patent fuels match in size and shape with my objects. Can you please give me more informations about this product? Like if it was traded with mediterranean countries, until when and if you know about any lost ship and cargo?
Thank you in advance
Mike miller
1 Mawrth 2021, 13:53

Why molded blocks of coal draw my interest I'll never know.
Weird, ain't it ?

Marc Haynes Staff Amgueddfa Cymru
4 Awst 2020, 13:52
Dear David Adams,

Thank you very much for contacting us about your find. I have forwarded your message to our Principal Curator for Industry (and the author of this article), Jennifer Protheroe-Jones. Please note that she is currently on furlough, so it may be some time before she is able to advise on your question. I would like to apologise for the inconvenience.

Best wishes,

Digital Team
David Adams
4 Awst 2020, 09:28
I am just contacting you to say that I have just found a Crown Works Block ( Size 10" x 6" x 4.5" Weight 10lbs ) at the back of a local garage in Wingerworth , Chesterfield , Derbyshire.

It is in excellent condition and I have no idea how long it has been there or how it got there . This is obviously ( after reading your previous comments ) one of the later manufactured blocks . If you could give me any additional information on it , ie , approx date of manufacture , rarity etc , etc or any other web sites I could look at it would be appreciated .

Regards David Adams
Sandy Medina
5 Gorffennaf 2020, 07:43
Yo encontré un carbón en la playa que felicidad tengo parte de la historia en mis manos
Jennifer Protheroe-Jones, Principal Curator – Industry Staff Amgueddfa Cymru
3 Ionawr 2020, 12:13
Dear Keith Gribble,

Thank you for your message. It is always interesting to hear of new finds of Welsh industrial products.

These blocks of patent fuel and large pieces of coal most likely originated from a vessel departing Cardiff, most likely one of the various vessels that were lost due to collision or stranding in locations that were variously described as Cardiff Entrance, Cardiff Sand, and Cardiff Roads. Coal and patent fuel was carried below decks in cargo holds, the hatches to which were secured covered with heavy timbers and tarpaulins before a vessel departed port. There was minimal likelihood of loss of cargo unless a vessel foundered.

In the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century, south Wales was the main exporter of patent fuel in the world, with around three million tons a year being exported each year in the first decade of the twentieth century. These finds are most unlikely to have been lost off the Terra Nova which stowed its patent fuel far below decks as it was not needed until the vessel reached Antarctica, and it effectively acted as ballast to offset the lighter expedition equipment and supplies. The Terra Nova departed Cardiff south westwards, passing Penarth, the vessel sailed in excellent weather which would not have resulted in loss of stowed cargo.

The Crown Works was established in 1857 and, with variations in ownership but not in the name ‘Crown’, the works continued production until 1964. Because of this very long time span of production, it is almost impossible to accurately date blocks that are found. The main clue come from the size of the blocks, with earlier blocks from a number of manufacturers weighing 56 lbs, and later blocks, from the later nineteenth century onwards, becoming standardised at 28 lbs (illustrated in the web article), although smaller blocks were also produced.

The Museum is informed of finds of Welsh patent fuel blocks around once a year: in recent years the Museum has been contacted by finders of blocks in Cardiff Docks, in the cellar of a house in south west England, trawled up in UK waters and on wreck sites in UK waters, at wreck sites off Florida USA, and off Chile, and in river and port locations in Guyana and in West Africa. These foreign locations accord with export statistics that recorded the numerous locations that Welsh patent fuel was exported to.

Thank you for your interest in the Museum and its collections.

Yours sincerely,

Jennifer Protheroe-Jones
Principal Curator - Industry
Keith Gribble
2 Ionawr 2020, 22:35
Hi there. I am an ex trawler skipper. Working the grounds off the orchard ledges/cardiff foreshore we have trawled many of these blocks patent cardiff. From this area. I have one at home now. It's very interesting to think that this may have been on board the terra nova all them years ago. We also trawled up huge pieces of coal. We assumed that it had fallen off of overloaded ships leaving the cardiff basin. ? Regards Keith
Marc Haynes Staff Amgueddfa Cymru
3 Gorffennaf 2019, 12:15

Hi Stacey,

Thank you very much for your message. One of our curators will contact you about your interesting find.

Best wishes,

Digital Team