Amgueddfa Blog

I gydnabod hyn, bydd Amgueddfa Cymru yn cynnal cyfres o flogiau misol, pob un yn trafod gwahanol elfen gemegol a’i harwyddocâd i Gymru. Cadwch lygad yn agored am y rhain trwy gydol y flwyddyn ar ein gwefan.

I ddechrau ein cyfres o flogiau, ym mis Ionawr rydym yn trafod arian.

Mae arian (symbol cemegol – Ag), rhif atomig 47, yn un o saith metel gwreiddiol alcemi a châi ei gynrychioli gan symbol y lleuad ar gynnydd. Mae arian yn fetel gwerthfawr ond ni fu erioed mor werthfawr ag aur.

Mae arian wedi chwarae rhan bwysig yn hanes Cymru ond nid yw hyn yn cael llawer o sylw. Yn rhan fwyaf gogleddol Ceredigion, ger pentref Goginan, mae nifer o hen fwyngloddiau a fu ymhlith cynhyrchwyr arian mwyaf toreithiog Ynysoedd Prydain. Mae bron yn sicr bod y Rhufeiniaid wedi darganfod y gwythiennau o fwynau llawn metelau yn y ddaear, ond y Frenhines Elisabeth I oedd yn gyfrifol am eu datblygu fel mwyngloddiau arian.

Dywed rhai mai Thomas Smythe, Prif Swyddog Tollau Porthladd Llundain a ddarganfu’r swm sylweddol cyntaf o arian ym mwynglawdd Cwmsymlog ym 1583. Mae’n llawer mwy tebygol mai Ulrich Frosse, peiriannydd mwyngloddio o’r Almaen a wnaeth y darganfyddiad a rhoi gwybod i Smythe. Roedd ganddo ef brofiad o gloddio am arian ac ymwelodd â’r mwynglawdd tua'r un pryd â Smythe. Yn ystod teyrnasiad Elisabeth I, amcangyfrifir bod pedair tunnell o arian wedi’i gloddio o fwyngloddiau Ceredigion.

Gwnaeth y Brenin J I a’r Brenin Siarl I elw sylweddol o’r mwyngloddiau (cynhyrchwyd 7 tunnell yn nheyrnasiad y naill a 100 tunnell yn nheyrnasiad y llall). Yn wir, ym 1638, penderfynodd Siarl I sefydlu bathdy yng Nghastell Aberystwyth gerllaw. Oherwydd ei lwyddiant, cafodd ei ddinistrio gan Oliver Cromwell a’r Seneddwyr yn ystod Rhyfel Cartref Lloegr ym 1646.

Mae gan Amgueddfa Cymru enghreifftiau o’r llu o ddarnau arian bath wedi’u gwneud o arian a fathwyd yn Aberystwyth. Un peth sy’n nodweddiadol ohonynt yw’r tair pluen ar y naill ochr a’r llall. Mae nod y llyfr bychan agored ar y darnau’n dangos mai Thomas Bushell a gafodd yr arian o fwyngloddiau Ceredigion a ran y Company of Mines Royal.

Mae'r mapiau a'r planiau a gynhyrchwyd i farchnata'r mwyngloddiau arian i fuddsoddwyr ymhlith y rhai cynharaf i'w cynhyrchu ym Mhrydain. Yn Llyfrgell Amgueddfa Cymru, mae sawl fersiwn o fapiau William Waller a gynhyrchwyd ar gyfer y Company of Mine Adventurers ym 1693 a 1704 ynghyd â Fodinae Regales Syr John Pettus a gyhoeddwyd ym 1670.

Cafodd un o’r mwyngloddiau, Bwlch yr Esgair Hir, ei frolio fel Potosi Cymru a defnyddiwyd peth o’r arian a gloddiwyd yno i wneud jwg ddŵr ac arni'r arysgrif ‘The Mines of Bwlch-yr-Eskir-hir’, tua 1692. Fodd bynnag, methiant oedd y mwynglawdd. Ni chynhyrchwyd cymaint o arian â’r disgwyl erioed ond problem ddaearegol oedd hyn yn hytrach na diffyg yn y dulliau cloddio. Efallai bod y safle’n fwyaf adnabyddus am ei ran mewn achos cyfreithiol yn erbyn rheolaeth y Goron dros fetelau gwerthfawr. Dygwyd yr achos gan y tirfeddiannwr Syr Carbery Pryse yn 1693 a rhoddodd derfyn ar ormes y Mines Royal.

Parhawyd i fwyngloddio arian mewn modd cynhyrchiol yng ngogledd Ceredigion, yn gyntaf o dan y Company of Mine Adventurers ac yna, trwy gydol y Chwyldro Diwydiannol, gan nifer o gwmnïau preifat. Cynhyrchwyd cyfanswm o dros 150 tunnell o fetel arian yn y rhan hon o Gymru.

Yn rhyfedd iawn, cymerodd tan y 1980au i ddaearegwyr adnabod y mwyn sy’n gyfrifol am fod cymaint o arian yr y rhan fechan hon o Gymru. Ei enw yw tetrahedrit – mwyn yn cynnwys copr, sinc, haearn ac antimoni sylffid – ac mae arian yn gallu cymryd lle peth o’r copr, y sinc a’r haearn sydd ynddo. Cofnodwyd bod hyd at 18%, yn ôl pwysau, o’r tetrahedrit o fwynglawdd Esgair Hir yn arian. Mae sbesimenau pwysig o fwynau a ddefnyddiwyd i adnabod y tetrahedrit yn cael eu cadw yn ein casgliadau daearegol yn yr Amgueddfa.

Nid oes metel arian naturiol yn weladwy yn yr un o fwyngloddiau Cymru ond mae rhai o’r enghreifftiau gorau yn y byd gan yr Amgueddfa yn ei chasgliad o fwynau. Mae’r sbesimenau, o fwynglawdd Kongsberg yn Norwy, o ansawdd eithriadol a chawsant eu caffael yn yr 1980au fel rhan o gasgliad R. J. King.

 

A glimpse at the large display case situated to far-left hand side of the Clore Discovery Centre in National Museum Cardiff reveals a visual array of different types of modern and historic decorative plates, teapots, as well as figurines. These are both taxidermy and ceramic objects, some brightly glazed and others radiating the luminescence of the stone they were crafted from. The eye can rest upon, or circle around, such shapes as a smoothly curved oxen made from Chinese jade, an earthenware Staffordshire leopard and even a taxidermy echidna, an animal that belongs to the Monotreme order of egg-laying mammals.

Elsewhere in the cabinet, the eye can be drawn to ceramic animals like the brightly marked Figure of a Leopard, produced between 1865 and 1875 by the renowned Wedgwood pottery factory. As its attractive form indicates, Wedgwood’s animal figures were popular by the 1850s and affordable to a public who could display them as they were modelled in a way that allowed them to sit on a mantel piece.

Earlier examples of Wedgwood’s engagement with animal motifs can also be viewed in the Teapot with Tiger Print, produced between 1812 and 1815, and John Walton’s Lamb-Figure Group, made between 1820 and 1830. This figure group, of an ewe and her lamb sitting amongst a mound of foliage called a bocage, has a purpose that can be grasped by viewing its flat back and hollowed-out tree trunk. This physical shape would have enabled it to have been used as a spill vase – that could take a flame from fire to a light – and which would normally sit on a narrow ledge.

Additionally, the Clore Discovery Centre holds handling drawers containing teapots, as well as ceramic fragments, such as roughly-textured earthenware, accompanied by bilingual guide books to aid sensory interpretation. These objects are just a small fraction of National Museum Cardiff’s wonderful collection of ceramics to look out for during a visit so please come and explore!

The National Waterfront Museum is one of the partners in the Angelshark Project, which aims to gather information, both current and historic, about this protected species, one of the rarest sharks in the world. Prior to a roadshow at the Museum on 15 and 16 February, Jake Davies, from the Zoological Society of London, shares his work.

Angels of Wales - How can you help?

Angel Shark Project: Wales is a pioneering new project with an aim to better understand and safeguard the Angelshark (Squatina squatina) in Wales through fisher-participation, heritage and citizen-science.

We are working with Amgueddfa Cymru and alongside fishers and coastal communities in Wales to better understand the Angelshark through gathering historic and current information about its life off the Welsh coast.

Angelsharks are large, flat-bodied sharks can reach 2.4m in length. Also known as monkfish or angel fish, they are sometimes mistaken for a ray or misrecorded as anglerfish. Angelsharks feed on a range of fish, crustaceans and molluscs and have an important role in maintaining a balanced marine ecosystem.

They are not threatening to humans, living mainly on sand or mud at the bottom of the sea, lying in wait to ambush unsuspecting prey.

Angelsharks are protected under Schedule 5 of the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981.

It is illegal to intentionally disturb, target, injure or kill Angelsharks within 12 nautical miles of Welsh and English coastlines.

The four major areas of the Angelshark Project are:

  1. Understand status and ecology of Angelsharks in Wales
  2. Fishers are stewards of Angelshark conservation
  3. Communities help unlock Angelshark heritage to share across the generations.
  4. Develop Wales’s Angelshark Action Plan to identify key steps to secure their future

As part of the historical research, Angel Shark Project: Wales will be running the Angelshark History Roadshow from January to March 2019 in five of the project’s focal regions: North Anglesey, the Llŷn Peninsula, Porthmadog to Aberarth, Fishguard to Milford Haven and Swansea to Porthcawl (though we also welcome information from across Wales). The free events provide the opportunity to bring your memories, photos or stories of Angelsharks (or any other interesting shark, skate or ray species off the Welsh Coast) and see how they help build our understanding of Wales’s rich maritime landscape. The roadshows will also be a good opportunity to meet the team and find out more about the project. The roadshow dates are:

Date Venue Location
25 & 26 Jan Llŷn Maritime museum Nefyn
11 & 12 Feb Milford Heritage Museum Milford Haven
15 & 16 Feb National Waterfront Museum Swansea
1 & 2 Mar The National Library of Wales Aberystwyth
4 & 5 March Sea Cadets Holyhead

Following the roadshows, we will be recruiting and training citizen scientists to continue the historical research by scouring local libraries, archives, historic magazines and museums. Information captured through this research will be digitalised and displayed in collaboration with Peoples Collection Wales and provided to the next generation via a History of Angels iBook.

Those who are interested in being part of the project but unable to attend the roadshows and would like to share memories or photographs of Angelsharks can get in touch at angelsharks@zsl.org to help save one of the rarest sharks in the world. You can report personal sightings and accidental captures of Angelsharks to the sightings webpage http://angelsharknetwork.com/#map or email angelsharks@zsl.org.

Angel Shark Project: Wales is led by the Zoological Society of London (ZSL) and Natural Resources Wales (NRW), funded by the Heritage Lottery Fund and the Welsh Government.

Angel Shark Project: Wales (PDF)
 

Hope that you have been following our Natural Science #MuseumAdvent Calendar

Our curators and scientists in the Natural Science Department at National Museum Cardiff have been choosing their favourite objects from the collections, to place behind the doors of our very own museum advent calendar. As it is Christmas Eve, all of the doors are now open and we wanted to share with you all of the wonderful 24 objects chosen, and the staff who have helped created it. 

Why not have a look back through all of the doors and find out about these amazing objects and specimens within Amgueddfa Cymru collections.

Nadolig Llawen a blwyddyn newydd dda oddi wrth @CardiffCurator
 
Merry Christmas and a happy new year from @CardiffCurator

Helo Cyfeillion y Gwanwyn,

Diolch am eich gwaith caled yn cymryd cofnodion tywydd dros y wythnosau diwethaf. Byddwch yn cymryd darlleniad tywydd nesaf yr wythnos o’r 7-11 Ionawr. Wrth gofnodi eich darlleniadau i’r wefan, plîs nodwch ‘dim cofnod’ ar gyfer y dyddiau rydych i fwrdd o’r ysgol.

Does dim rhaid cymryd eich potiau adra dros y gwyliau. Os yw’r potiau mewn lle saf lle byddant ddim yn cael ei effeithio gan y gwynt, bydda nhw’n iawn. Mae'r pridd yn cadw’r bylbiau yn ddwfn yn erbyn y tywydd oer.

Mae’r tywydd wedi bod yn eithaf cynnes am y gaeaf, a bydd o’n ddiddorol i weld yr effaith mae hyn yn cael ar ein bylbiau!

Mwynhewch eich gwyliau Cyfeillion y Gwanwyn.

Nadolig Llawen a Blwyddyn Newydd Dda,

Athro’r Ardd a Bwlb Bychan

 

Eich Sylwadau:

Sylwadau am eich bylbiau:

Ysgol Gymraeg Dewi Sant (Llanelli): Mae rhai o'r bylbiau yn dechrau egino. Athro’r Ardd: Newyddion gwych cyfeillion, hoffwn weld lluniau!

Henllys CIW Primary: on Tuesday actual rainfall was o.5mm We have spotted a small shoot coming from one of the pots a - daffodil in R.'s pot Also, the coconut husk pot has surprised us as the daffodil shoot has sprung up this week it is now showing quite a bit and the crocus shoot is poking up from the soil. Athro’r Ardd: How exciting bulb buddies, I’d love to see photos if you are able to take and share these? Keep up the good work.

Carnbroe Primary School: Dear Professor Plant and Baby Bulb it has been very cold this week and the soil in our plant pots are frozen and icy. Our bulbs are doing well and they are really healthy. Athro’r Ardd: Well done for looking after your plants bulb buddies, I’m glad to hear that they are doing well. Thank you for your observations and for providing an insight into the weather conditions in your area.

Good Shepherd Primary and Nursery School: we like seeing the plants grow. Athro’r Ardd: Me too bulb buddies!

Sylwadau am y prosiect:

Stanford in the Vale Primary School: Hi, the week is wrong but it wouldn't show this week on the select a week list. Been cold and rainy this week. Speak to you next week!! R. Athro’r Ardd: Thank you for updating me R. I’ll look into why this week wasn’t showing. Keep up the good work.

Good Shepherd Primary and Nursery School: C.:it was very fun. R.:I think it was very intresting. Athro’r Ardd: Lovely to hear from you buddies, and I’m glad you’re enjoying the project!

Steelstown Primary School:  From reading the data this week we think that it is raining a lot more but also the temperature is rising. We can't wait for next week. We love doing this project. Every week the results are different and we are excited to continue doing it and colleting the data for the weather. Athro’r Ardd: Thanks bulb buddies, have you looked at data from previous years and from different schools? You can do this on the web site and I think you’d find it interesting!

Ysgol Bro Pedr: Our bulbs are feeling a bit cold this week. Thank you very much For the Christmas Card. Athro’r Ardd: It is getting colder, but the bulbs will hopefully stay well insulated and cosy in the soil! I’m glad your card arrived, merry Christmas bulb buddies.

Sylwadau am y tywydd:

YGG Tonyrefail: Mae hi wedi bod yn wythnos sych ac oer. Diolch am eich cerdyn Nadolig Athro'r Ardd a Bylb Bychan. Nadolig Llawen a Blwyddyn Newydd dda i chi gyd yn yr Amgueddfa. Welwn ni chi yn 2019!! Athro’r Ardd: Diolch cyfeillion y gwanwyn, Nadolig Llawen a Blwyddyn Newydd Dda i bawb yn Ysgol Gynradd Gymraeg Tonyrefail hefyd!

Our Lady of Peace Primary School: Another normal cold week well see you after Christmas break. Athro’r Ardd: See you after Christmas bulb buddies.

Holy Cross Girls' Primary Schoo: We were out on a school trip on Wednesday so didn't have the opportunity to collect the data. Athro’r Ardd: Thank you for letting me know bulb buddies. I hope you had a good trip!

Tonyrefail Community School: Our rain gauge kept falling over this week so we have no record on Wednesday. Athro’r Ardd: Thank you for letting me know bulb buddies!

Ysgol Nantymoel: We have inputted the wrong data for week commencing 12.05.18 how can we correct it? Athro’r Ardd: Hi bulb buddies, you should be able to re-enter data for previous weeks. When you do this the most recent data entered for a given week shows on the graph. If this isn’t working please email me and I’ll update your data for you.

Stanford in the Vale Primary School: Quite cold this week defenetly today. It was frozen this morning! Today the temperature has slipped down a lot! The week was wrong again because it wouldn't let us choose the right week!! Speak to you next year-2019!! R. Athro’r Ardd: Thanks for the update R. You are doing a fantastic job. I’ll look into the issue with the dates and will fix it for when you start back!

Chorley St James Primary School: This week it has been very dry and very gloomy, but some parts of the day it has been sunny. Athro’r Ardd: Thank you for the weather observations bulb buddy.